2021 Vol. 11, No. 6

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2021, 11(6): .
Characteristics and source analysis of VOCs pollution in summer in Qingdao
LIU Ruize, FANG Yuan, ZHANG Tao, ZHANG Jingqiao, WANG Shaobo, ZHANG Wenjie, WANG Han, WANG Shulan
2021, 11(6): 1041-1048. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210202
VOCs online monitoring was carried out in Qingdao City, Shandong Province from July 1 to 31, 2020, and the concentration, pollution characteristics, reactive activity and source of VOCs were analyzed. The results showed that the concentration of VOCs in summer of 2020 was (24.78±11.69)×10-9, of which alkanes accounted for the largest content (44.79%), followed by aldehydes and ketones (21.98%) and halogenated hydrocarbons (16.85%). The results of atmospheric chemical reactivity of VOCs showed that alkenes contributed the most to ozone formation potential (OFP) and hydroxyl reaction rate (L·OH), accounting for 37.10% and 55.63%, respectively. Butene, n-butane and propylene were the three species with the highest contribution to OFP and L·OH. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) model was used to analyze the sources of VOCs, and five sources were identified, including liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) /secondary generation source (31.1%), fixed combustion source (22.6%), mobile source (20.6%), rubber and plastic production source (18.1%) and industrial solvent source (7.6%). The use of LPG was the key point of atmospheric VOCs control in Qingdao. The clustering results of backward airflow trajectories showed that Qingdao was mainly affected by the provincial urban air masses, the long-distance maritime air masses in the northeast, and maritime air masses in the east-southeast direction in summer. The short-range air masses from the province made the largest contribution to the local VOCs concentration in Qingdao.
Characteristics and source analysis of water-soluble ions in PM2.5 in Urumqi City
SHI Xiaocui, PALIDA Yahefu, SONG Sixing
2021, 11(6): 1049-1056. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210045
In order to explore the pollution characteristics and sources of water-soluble ions in PM2.5 during the heating and non-heating periods in Urumqi, PM2.5 samples were collected in October and December, 2019. Nine water-soluble ions, including K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, $NH_4^+$,$SO_4^{2-}$, $NO_3^-$, Cl-, F-, in PM2.5 were analyzed and determined by using the ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) emission spectrometer. The principal component analysis (PCA) and positive matrix factorization (PMF) models were used to carry out ion source analysis. The results showed that the average mass concentration of total water-soluble ions at sampling points of Xinjiang Agricultural University, Xiaoximen, Santunbei, and Midong District was (100.8±59.0), (61.1±18.4), (53.1±22.5) and (103.1±67.4) μg/m3, respectively, accounting for 57.9%, 56.7%, 44.0% and 54.1% of PM2.5, respectively. $NH_4^+$, $SO_4^{2-}$ and $NO_3^-$ were the main water-soluble ions in PM2.5. The average values of SOR and NOR at each sampling point in Urumqi were higher than 0.1, which indicated that there was an obvious secondary transformation process in the atmospheric during the study period. The results of PCA and PMF analysis indicated that the water-soluble ions at each sampling point mainly originated from secondary conversion, dust and combustion activities.
Characteristics and source analysis of water-soluble ions of PM2.5 during spring in Mang City, Yunnan Province
ZHAO Liduo, REN Lihong, LI Jun, HUANG Shunxiang, LI Gang, ZHANG Jiahao, ZHANG Kai
2021, 11(6): 1057-1064. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210073
To understand the chemical characteristics of water-soluble ions in PM2.5 in spring in Mang City, Yunnan Province, PM2.5 samples were collected at three monitoring stations in Mang City from March 11 to April 1, 2019 and 9 water-soluble ions ($SO_{4}^{2-}$、$NO_{3}^{-}$、Cl-、F-、$NH_{4}^{+}$、K+、Na+、Ca2+、Mg2+) were analyzed. At the same time, the main sources of water-soluble ions in PM2.5 were discussed by principal component analysis (PCA). The results showed that: The daily mean value of PM2.5 was 25.5-84.1 μg/m3 during the sampling period in spring, most of which less than the level II standard limit of Ambient Air Quality Standards (GB 3095-2012). SNA (collectively referred to $SO_{4}^{2-}$、$NO_{3}^{-}$ and $NH_{4}^{+}$) accounted for 84.1% of the total water-soluble ions, indicating that SNA dominated the main fraction of PM2.5. The proportion of $SO_{4}^{2-}$ in total water-soluble ions was the highest, about 52.8%, and the largest contribution to secondary ions. SOR (sulfur oxidation rate) was 0.58, indicating that there was an obvious secondary conversion process from SO2 to $SO_{4}^{2-}$ in the atmosphere. $SO_{4}^{2-}$/$NO_{3}^{-}$>1 indicated that the contribution of stationary source to water-soluble ions was greater than that of mobile source. The correlation analysis of water-soluble ions showed that Cl - had a good correlation with Ca2+ and Mg2+, indicating that Ca2+、Mg2+ may exist in the forms of CaCl2 and MgCl2 in atmospheric particulate matter. The correlation coefficients between K+ and $NO_{3}^{-}$ was 0.81, which indicated that K+ may exist as KNO3. $NH_{4}^{+}$, $NO_{3}^{-}$ and $SO_{4}^{2-}$ mainly existed in the form of (NH4)2SO4 and NH4NO3. The anion to cation micro-equivalent ratio of PM2.5 was 0.82, indicating that PM2.5 was weakly alkaline. The PCA showed that the main sources of water-soluble ions in PM2.5 in spring in Mang City were dust source, biomass combustion source and secondary inorganic aerosol.
Analysis on meteorological causes of heavy pollution in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region during the prevention and control of COVID-19
LIU Yanjie, LIU Xiaoxue, MA Gengxue
2021, 11(6): 1065-1074. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210037
A continuous regional heavy pollution process occurred in Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei from February 8 to 13, 2020, during the period of COVID-19 prevention and control. Based on the surface and upper air meteorological observation data and ERA5 data of European center, the meteorological causes of the heavy pollution event were analyzed from the circulation background, temperature advection, surface meteorological elements and boundary layer wind field distribution. The results showed: (1) During this process, the atmospheric circulation was stable. In the early stage of pollution, the upper air was dominated by northwest airflow. From February 10, the shortwave trough moved eastward one after another. South wind occurred at 850 hPa and below. There were many closed low pressure on the ground, the pressure field was weak in the whole, and the weather situation was stable. (2) The cold air activity in the central region was not significant, and the warm advection or weak cold advection occurred in the middle and low levels in most periods. The inversion times were obviously more, and the inversion layer thickness and strength were greater than the south. The pollutants were not easy to diffuse. (3) The ground wind in the central area was relatively small, and the wind direction below 1 000 m of the boundary layer was unstable, and the ventilation performance was poor. In addition, the transportation of pollutants in the south led to the strengthening of heavy pollution in this area and its surrounding areas. (4) The distribution of heavy pollution area was consistent with that of surface convergence line, which appeared in the north of surface convergence line and wet area. (5) Compared with the heavy pollution weather in Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei in February, 2014, the meteorological elements in this process were more unfavorable to the diffusion of pollutants, but the prevention and control of emission reduction had weakened the degree of pollution to a certain extent.
Investigation on air pollutants and carbon dioxide emissions from motor vehicles in Beijing based on COPERT model
SHEN Yan, WU Tongran, YAN Jing, LI Renfei, CUI Yangyang, LIU Xinyu, FAN Shoubin, ZHAI Jifei, CAO Xizi, WAN Yunfei, XUE Yifeng
2021, 11(6): 1075-1082. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210289
Air pollutants and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions reduction from motor vehicles play an important role in improving air quality and mitigating climate change. The data of vehicle population, road-driving conditions, meteorological, fuel composition and fuel consumption were comprehensively used to calculate the main air pollutants and CO2 emissions of motor vehicles in Beijing based on COPERT Model. The emission characteristics, emission contribution of the vehicles of different types, and emission standard levels were identified. Urban-ADMS model was used to simulate and quantify the effect on surrounding environment by motor vehicles. The results showed that: the emissions of CO, NOx, PM2.5 and VOCs from motor vehicles of Beijing was 121 500, 40 600, 1 800 and 25 700 tons, respectively, in 2019. The structure of vehicles had been optimized. Vehicles with National IV and above standards accounted for 86.97%. Diesel passenger and freight vehicles accounting for 4% contributed greatly to the emissions, accounting for 84% and 60% of the total emissions of NOx and PM2.5, respectively. Evaporative emissions from gasoline vehicles accounted for 20% of VOCs emissions from motor vehicles, which required attention. Vehicle exhaust emissions contributed 15.7 μg/m3 to the average NO2 concentration at five traffic monitoring stations which had a great impact on air quality. CO2 emissions of motor vehicles were 16.83 million tons, of which diesel vehicle emissions contributed about 21%. Air pollutants and carbon emissions of motor vehicles need further coordinated control.
Pollution characteristics and risk assessment of volatile organic compounds in groundwater drinking water sources in Klulun River Basin
ZHANG Kunfeng, CHANG Sheng, ZHAO Shaoyan, YANG Guang, WANG Enrui, FAN Yueting, FU Qing, XIE Qiong, SUN Xingbin
2021, 11(6): 1083-1091. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210092
In order to clarify the pollution characteristics and risk levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the groundwater drinking water sources of Klulun River Basin, a purge and trap gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer was used to analyze the pollution in the Klulun River in August 2020. Twelve water samples (7 surface water and 5 groundwater) collected in the basin were tested and analyzed, and the health risk and ecological risk assessment models recommended by US EPA were used to assess the risk of VOCs. The results showed that the degree of VOCs pollution in the water bodies of the study area was low, and the groundwater was generally slightly higher than the surface water. VOCs were detected in 12 sampling points, including 1,1-dichloroethane, 2,2-dichloropropane, 1,2-dichloropropane, 1,3-dichloropropane and1,1-dichloroethylene, and the detection rate of these VOCs were 100%. Among the detected VOCs, the concentration of 1,3-dichloropropane was the highest, with an average value of 2 524.01 ng/L, ranging from 1 186.44 to 4 677.97 ng/L; the concentration of o-xylene was the lowest, with an average value of only 0.99 ng/L. There was no non-carcinogenic health risks at each sampling site, the carcinogenic health risks were within an acceptable range, and there was moderate ecological risks to aquatic organisms.
Response mechanism of dissolved organic matter and heavy metals in sediments of typical urban rivers
ZHU Ningmei, CUI Bing, LIU Dongping, YU Huibin, GAO Hongjie, ZHENG Zhaopei
2021, 11(6): 1092-1101. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210093
Three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy, combined with parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis, canonical correspondence analysis (CCA), and structural equation model (SEM), was applied to measure the concentrations of the heavy metals and nutrients, detect the three-dimensional fluorescence spectra of dissolved organic matter (DOM), and study the response mechanism of DOM and heavy metals in urban river sediment. Surface sediment samples were collected from Huangnihe River, Xinkaihe River and Mantanghe River in Shenyang City. The average concentration of total nitrogen (TN) was ordered as Xinkaihe River>Huangnihe River>Mantanghe River, so was total phosphorus (TP). TP average concentrations were higher than 650 mg/kg in the three rivers, which attributed to heavy polluted status. According to the correlation analysis, Cu, Ni and Cr were homologous in Huangnihe River, As, Cd and Hg were homologous in Xinkaihe River, and As and Zn were homologous in Mantanghe River. Based on PARAFAC analysis, five fluorescent components were extracted from DOM in the three rivers, namely, terrestrial humus (C1), fulvic-like (C2 and C3), humic-like (C4), tryptophan-like (C5), among which the abundance of C1 accounted for 30.31% of the total abundance, and C2 and C3 accounted for 37.76%. Obviously, terrestrial humus and fulvic-like were the main components of DOM. DOM in Huangnihe River and Xinkaihe River were deeply affected by the allochthonous, while DOM in Mantanghe River by the autochthonous. Based on CCA, C3, C5, Cr and Pb were the characteristic factors affecting Huangnihe River sediment, Hg was the important factor affecting Xinkaihe River sediment, and TP, As and Zn were the characteristic factors affecting Mantanghe River sediment. Based on SEM analysis, the weights of TN, TP, C1, C2, C3 and C5 to heavy metals was 25.46%, 22.16%, 17.52%, 15.42%, 9.11% and 10.33%, respectively, indicating that TN and TP were the main influencing factors of the heavy metals. The path coefficient of the nutrients was -0.18 for the heavy metals, whose path coefficients for Hg, As, Zn and Cd were -2.83, -1.69, -1.91 and -3.24 respectively, which indicated that the nutrients had homology with Hg, As, Zn and Cd. Furthermore, the path coefficient of DOM was 0.11 for the heavy metals, whose path coefficients for Pb and Cr were 1.58 and 1.00, which suggested that DOM had homology with Pb and Cr.
Study on water environmental characteristics of River Kaidu Catchment in Xinjiang
TOHTI Ghopur, SAI Bayartu, ZHANG Jianping, HU Yang, SHAO Keqiang, GAO Guang, TANG Xiangming
2021, 11(6): 1102-1109. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210422
Taking River Kaidu Catchment as the research object, 15, 12 and 17 sampling sites were set up in the upstream tributaries, the mainstream of River Kaidu and the downstream Lake Bosten, respectively. Nine water environmental investigations were conducted during June to October in 2014 and June to September in 2015. The spatial-temporal distribution characteristics of physiochemical parameters in different water bodies in River Kaidu Catchment were explored, and the related reasons were discussed. The results showed that the main physiochemical parameters in tributaries, mainstream and Lake Bosten differed significantly along different spatial-temporal scales. pH, water temperature, total dissolved solids (TDS), total nitrogen (TN), permanganate index (CODMn) and chlorophyll a (Chla) in tributaries and mainstream were significantly lower than those in Lake Bosten, while the turbidity in tributaries and mainstream was significantly higher than that in Lake Bosten, especially during the rainy season from June to August. The concentration of total phosphorous (TP) in mainstream was significantly higher than that in tributaries and Lake Bosten. The average concentration of TDS in Lake Bosten was 1.62 mg/L, indicating a status of oligosaline of this lake. The spatial distributions of TDS, TP and CODMn in Lake Bosten were similar, showing the spatial distribution characteristics of northwest > southeast > southwest. The average concentration of TN in Lake Bosten was 0.88 mg/L, and showed a decreasing trend from the northwest Huangshuigou area and southwest river mouth area to mid-lake as well as the east of the lake. The spatial characteristics of salt and nutrients in Lake Bosten were closely correlated with the frequent agricultural activities in the catchment and the input runoff from River Kaidu.
Distribution characteristics and application of Pu isotopes in soils and lake sediments of China
FENG Dongxia, LIAO Haiqing, YANG Fang, WANG Xihuan, JIA Shiqi, ZHAO Qianyu, ZHANG Yi, BAI Yangwei
2021, 11(6): 1110-1120. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210111
Plutonium (Pu) is an important radionuclide that exists in the environment in trace or ultra-trace level, which is closely associated with the nuclear industry. The distribution characteristics, migration behavior and the application in geochemistry of 239+240Pu in soil and lake sediments in recent years in China were reviewed. The results showed that the sedimentation fluxes of 239+240Pu in soils were estimated at from 7.31 MBq/km2 to 554.00 MBq/km2; while that of 239+240Pu in lake sediments were from 4.80 MBq/km2 to 240.60 MBq/km2, varying with the environment and latitude in the study area. 240Pu/239Pu isotope ratios from soils and lake sediments were found to be within 0.048-0.307 and 0.164-0.193, with an average of 0.181±0.026 and 0.179±0.021, respectively. Global atmospheric nuclear test sedimentation was the main source of239+240Pu in China. As an important long-lived radionuclide, the combination of Pu isotope with other radionuclide tracing methods (e. g. 137Cs, 210Pb and 7Be tracing methods), remote sensing technology and traditional research methods should be strengthened in future research, which was conducive to improving the analysis accuracy of Pu in large-scale environmental areas and the tracing efficiency of 239+240Pu radionuclide tracing technology.
Impact of lake areas on sediment accumulation rates and transport fluxes in Nanyi Lake during the period of 1985-2016
WANG Xiaolei, XUE Bin, YAO Shuchun, CHENG Longjuan, ZHU Hongwei, YIN Lu, ZHAO Zihan
2021, 11(6): 1121-1130. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210010
By testing the environmental radionuclides 210Pbex and137Cs in the sediment cores of Nanyi Lake in 2008, 2014 and 2015 supplemented by the mutually confirmed 210Pb CRS dating model and 137Cs dating time scale method, the sediment accumulation rates (SARs) over the past 100 years were quantitatively estimated. According to remote sensing visual interpretation method, the spatial and temporal variation of lake areas in Nanyi Lake during the period of 1985-2016 were obtained. Combined with the constructed lake sediment transport model, the annual amount of sediment transport fluxes (STFs) via the outflow river of Nanyi Lake was quantitatively estimated. Based on this, the correlation between lake SARs, STFs and lake area change was further analyzed. The results indicated that the distribution characteristics of 210Pbex and137Cs in the sediment core section of the same lake area in different years were similar, and the distribution of 210Pbex showed the trend of decreasing with increasing depth, while137Cs recorded the first sedimentation in 1954 and the maximum peak of sedimentation accumulation in 1963 at the depths of 24 and 16 cm, respectively. SARs of Nanyi Lake showed a fluctuating trend as a whole. High SARs appeared around the 1950s and a slow rising trend was observed since then, which maybe closely related to the dual impacts of natural and anthropogenic influences in different historical periods. Overall, a shrinking trend was found and the area decreased by 57.37 km2 over the past 31 years. Spatially, the declined areas were focused on the northwest, northeast and southeast regions of the lake. The excessive reclamation around the lake was the dominant factor influencing the declined lake areas over the past decades. The annual amount of STFs of Nanyi Lake was about 1 904.60 t/a. Both of SARs and STFs were greatly affected by the lake areas, and SARs showed an exponential increase trend but a linear decrease for STFs along with the expanding of lake areas.
Study and determination of nutrient criteria in Liaodong Bay
ZHU Yunjie, ZHU Xiaoyan, LIN Yingzi, XU Qiujin, LEI Kun
2021, 11(6): 1131-1136. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210065
As an important coastal economic zone in China, Liaodong Bay carries a large number of nutrients discharged from coastal areas for many years, and the coastal area is seriously eutrophicated. Based on the monitoring data of seawater environmental quality in Liaodong Bay from 2014 to 2017, the reference values of dissolved inorganic nitrogen, active phosphate and their response index dissolved oxygen (DO) in the inshore waters of Liaodong Bay were derived by frequency analysis. Also, the frequency distribution curve was drawn using the special survey data of Bohai Sea of State Oceanic Administration when Liaodong Bay was not been polluted in 1974, and the median value was used as the reference state for verification. Finally, the results of the two methods were compared, and the recommended baseline values of dissolved inorganic nitrogen, active phosphate and DO were comprehensively analyzed and deduced. The results showed that the baseline values of dissolved inorganic nitrogen, active phosphate and DO obtained by frequency analysis was 0.050, 0.002 and 9.61 mg/L, respectively, and the reference states of dissolved inorganic nitrogen and DO in Liaodong Bay was 0.053 and 6.29 mg/L by reference state method, respectively. Compared with the results of frequency analysis and reference state method, the reference values of dissolved inorganic nitrogen obtained by the two methods were basically the same, but DO baseline values were quite different. Considering that the class Ⅰ water quality standard limit of DO concentration in Seawater Quality Standard (GB 3097-1997) was 6.0 mg/L, the recommended baseline values of dissolved inorganic nitrogen, active phosphate and DO in Liaodong Bay was finally determined as 0.05, 0.002 and 6.29 mg/L, respectively.
Empirical studies on the performance and influencing factors of the transformation of scientific and technological achievements in Water Major Project
WU Jing, WANG Shen, XIE Xianchuan, LÜ Lianhong, LUO Hong
2021, 11(6): 1137-1146. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210046
The transformation of scientific and technological achievements is an important measure to realize the strategy of innovation-driven development, and it is of great significance for the high-quality development of China's economy. Taking the transformation of scientific and technological achievements of Science and Technology Major Project for Water Pollution Control and Treatment (Water Major Project)in the Huaihe River as an example, the operation mechanism of the transformation and industrialization of its scientific and technological achievements was analyzed systematically on the basis of field investigation. Analytic hierarchy process was used to measure the transformation performance of the scientific and technological achievements, meanwhile, the influencing factors of achievement transformation performance were analyzed by constructing multiple ordered Logistic regression model. The results indicated that the new research and development organization model had the best performance in the transformation of scientific and technological achievements, followed by the universities incubation model and the cooperative transformation model of environmental protection enterprises. The results also suggested that the continuity of participation in Water Major Project, advanced technology, research and development capital ratio, the role of technology alliance, the fund and hardware support provided by the government, and performance appraisal incentive were important factors affecting the performance level of Water Major Project in the Huaihe River. In the future, the joint efforts of the government, the market and the scientific research innovation bodies were needed to accelerate the construction of an eco-environmental scientific and technological achievement transformation system with innovation platforms as the important carrier, and to systematically promote the real transformation and implementation of scientific and technological achievements in the field of eco-environment.
Classification of littoral zone and buffer zone in a typical mountain barrier lake and the scheme of ecological restoration: a case study of Jingpo Lake
XIE Zijian, WEI Weiwei, LI Chunhua, YE Chun, WANG Hao
2021, 11(6): 1147-1153. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210095
Jingpo Lake is the largest mountain barrier lake in China and the second largest lake of this kind in the world. It is a typical river connected deep-water lake with special topography and landform. Jingpo Lake and its surrounding eco-environment were investigated, and the types and widths of littoral zone and buffer zone were classified. Based on the topographic and landform characteristics and hydrological conditions of Jingpo Lake shore zone, the littoral zone of Jingpo Lake was divided into six types including hill type, dike type, road type, estuary type, village type and farmland type, while the buffer zone of Jingpo Lake was divided into three types including village type, farmland type and village type. Additionally, based on the factors such as habitat, land use mode, soil erosion and vegetation distribution of the littoral zone and buffer zone, the main problems of eco-environment in the littoral zone and buffer zone of Jingpo Lake were discussed and the ecological restoration ideas of Jingpo Lake littoral zone and buffer zone were proposed. The results were aimed to provide reference for the ecological protection and restoration of the littoral zone and buffer zone in Jingpo Lake.
Allelochemicals isolation and identification of submerged macrophyte in in-situ remediation
ZHANG Zhihao, LI Wei, WU Xiaofu
2021, 11(6): 1164-1172. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210090
The large growth of blue-green algae in water is an important cause of water eutrophication, so it is very important to inhibit the growth of blue-green algae in the application of in-situ ecological restoration. The growth of algae can be inhibited by some allelochemicals secreted by submerged plants. Qualitative and quantitative studies on allelopathic substances secreted by submerged plants and clarifying the action mechanism of allelopathic substances should have certain theoretical guidance and practical significance for ecological management of eutrophic water bodies. Five submerged plants, including Myriophyllum verticillatum, Vallisneria natans, Elodea canadensis, Hydrilla verticillata, and Ceratophyllum demersum, which were common in southern China, were selected and their hydroponic solution was analyzed by GC-MS. The species of secondary metabolites secreted by submerged plants were identified and their potential allelopathic effects were investigated. The results showed that a total of 56 compounds were detected in the hydroponic solution of 5 submerged plants, of which the most detected were organic acids. The contents of organic acids secreted by Myriophyllum verticillatum, Vallisneria natans, Elodea canadensis and Hydrilla verticillata were the highest, while the contents of ketones and esters were high in the hydroponic solution of Ceratophyllum demersum. It was speculated that the main allelochemicals detected in the hydroponic solution of Myriophyllum verticillatum were succinic acid, citric acid and phenol; lactic acid, citric acid, sebacic acid, stearic acid, lauric acid, and phenol in the hydroponic solution of Vallisneria natans played the main role of algae inhibition. The main allelochemicals were azelaic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and palmitic acid in the hydroponic solution of Elodea canadensis; nonanoic acid, ferulic acid, capric acid, oleic acid, butyl acetate and diisobutyl phthalate were the substances that played the role of decontamination and algae inhibition in the hydroponic solution of Hydrilla verticillata and Ceratophyllum demersum.
Patents analysis of bioremediation technologies based on Innography platform
FENG Shuo, LI Hongna, SONG Tingting, YAN Mengmeng, LI Luyao, ZHU Changxiong
2021, 11(6): 1173-1181. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210021
In order to fully understand the global research and development situation of bioremediation technologies, the related patents were analyzed based on Innography patent analysis platform. The number of patents, the applicant distribution, the competition situation of the applicant country, and IPC classification were analyzed. Moreover, the sources of core patents and the hot research topics were discussed. The number and development trend of bioremediation technology patents in china were analyzed. The results showed that the number of patents related to bioremediation technologies had increased rapidly since 2002 globally. The largest number of patents were from China, and the United States owned 80.0% of the core patents. The hot topics of core patents included organic pollutants, power consumption and water treatment. Maanshan Xinzhou Grape Specialty Cooperatives, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing University, Harbin Institute of Technology and Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology had the largest number of patents in China. Meanwhile, Maanshan Xinzhou Grape Specialty Cooperatives and Chinese Academy of Sciences also had strong comprehensive strength and technological innovation ability. The hot topics of bioremediation patent technology included healthcare, wastewater, bioavailability, heavy metals, and groundwater in China. It was expected that bioremediation-related research would be more focused on soil heavy metal pollution, integrated water environment management and organic pollution control in the future.
Aquatic biological risk assessment of Pb and Hg in sediments after tailings reservoir accidents based on non-parametric kernel density estimation model
CHEN Jialin, SU Hailei, SUN Fuhong, BAI Yangwei, GUO Fei
2021, 11(6): 1182-1188. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210206
Mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) are two typical heavy metal pollutants, which have strong toxic effects on aquatic ecosystems and are important indicators of environmental management. The leakage of Longxing Antimony Industry Tailings Pond in November 2015 had caused heavy metal pollution in a river section of about 346 km. High content of Hg and Pb in the tailing sands mainly end up in the river sediments that the pollutant passed through and the ecological risks of the basin caused by the high content of Hg and Pb in the tailings sands had not been comprehensively assessed scientifically. In order to solve the problem of less data on the toxic effects of pollutants in sediments on aquatic organisms, the phase equilibrium distribution method was adopted to use a large number of aquatic organisms toxicological test results and converted them into corresponding sediment toxic effect data. The non-parametric kernel density model was used to evaluate the ecological risks of Hg and Pb and compare it with three distribution models of Normal, Logistic and Weibull. The K-S test statistics, root mean square error (RMSE) and sum of square error (SSE) of Hg non-parametric kernel density model were 0.111 1, 0.025 04, and 0.000 627, respectively, which were the smallest compared to other models. The K-S test statistics of the non-parametric kernel density model of Pb was 0.125 0, which was the smallest amount, and RMSE and SSE were 0.028 42 and 0.000 807, respectively, which was a better result. The results showed that the non-parametric kernel density estimation model had good adaptability to the toxicity data of the two heavy metals and could obtain better simulation results; Pb concentration in the sediment was significantly higher than that of Hg, but the ecological risk level of Hg in the sediment was far higher than that of Pb.
Effect of optimizing operation of primary sedimentation tank on nitrogen and phosphorus removal of modified A2/O process
LI Hang, DONG Lichun, FANG Jianfei, DING Li, LÜ Liping
2021, 11(6): 1189-1195. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210038
The modified A2/O process was used to treat urban sewage, and the effect of optimized operation of primary sedimentation tank (PST) on nitrogen and phosphorus removal were investigated in the specific engineering example. Six different operation conditions were adopted in the test, namely, the flow distribution ratio of raw water entering PST to that directly entering the biological tank stepping over PST were 10∶0, 8∶2, 6∶4, 4∶6, 2∶8 and 0∶10, respectively. The results showed that the optimized operation of PST had significant influence on the concentration of total nitrogen in the effluent and the efficiency of biological phosphorus removal, but had little influence on the ammonia nitrogen concentration. The phenomenon of denitrifying phosphorus removal existed in the experimental process, and the denitrifying phosphorus removal rate was positively related to the flow distribution ratio of raw water stepping over PGT directly entering the biological tank. Among the six different conditions, the more optimal flow distribution ratio of raw water entering PST to that directly entering the biological tank stepping over PST was 6:4. In the later stage of this condition, the average concentration of total nitrogen in the effluent was 8.79 mg/L, which was 33.9% lower than the original condition; the concentration of ammonia nitrogen was lower than 0.50 mg/L, and the average concentration of total phosphorus in aerobic area was 0.34 mg/L, which met the first level A standard of Discharge Standard of Pollutants for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant (GB 18918-2002); the power consumption was 0.337 kW·h/m3, which was only 5.31% higher than the original operation condition, with a small increase. Compared with the original condition, although the power consumption slightly increased, the controllability of the effluent water quality was further strengthened, and it was significantly better than the discharge standard of the first level A.
Outdoor vacuum sewerage system and its application in rural sewage treatment engineering in China
YE Meiying, WANG Pingbo, LIU Yuqi, WANG Jianpeng, LIU Yanping, LI Mingxiao
2021, 11(6): 1196-1201. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210074
The collection of rural domestic sewage should combine the local terrain conditions and village distribution, and adopt different modes to collect sewage according to local conditions. The outdoor vacuum sewerage system, as a new type of drainage technology system, can solve the problem of sewage collection in the blind zones of gravity sewerage pipeline construction. It has been widely used in the field of drainage engineering and commercialized abroad; however, it is currently in the stage of engineering popularization and application in China. The applications of outdoor vacuum drainage system in rural sewage collection engineering in China in recent years were summarized. The composition, characteristics and existing design standard systems of outdoor vacuum sewerage system were introduced briefly. Compared with traditional gravity drainage system, the outdoor vacuum sewerage system had its unique advantages such as free of terrain restriction, wide application, water-saving, odor isolation, anti-blocking, convenient pipe network construction, and less impact on the surrounding environment. Outdoor vacuum sewerage system can be used as an important supplement to the traditional gravity drainage system with great application prospects in rural toilet reconstruction and sewage treatment engineering in China.
The application of hydrochar in soil environment: study progress and prospects
CHENG Hu, ZHANG Jiapeng, SONG Yang, BIAN Yongrong, LI Wei, LI Taihua, ZHANG Meng, JIANG Xin, HAN Jiangang
2021, 11(6): 1202-1209. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210378
In recent years, hydrothermal treatment of agricultural and forestry biomass waste to produce hydrochar has been a new way of solid waste recycling. Because of its excellent performance in improving soil, enhancing soil fertility, reducing greenhouse gases and repairing contaminated soil, its application in the field of agriculture and forestry environment has become a research hotspot and focus. The preparation process of hydrochar and the impacts, effects and potential mechanisms on soil physicochemical properties, greenhouse gas emissions and contaminated soil remediation during its application in the field were systematically analyzed. The problems existing in the application of hydrochar in the field were pointed out, and the future research ideas and key directions were put forward to provide reference for promoting, managing and guiding the application of hydrochar in soil environment.
Waste pile property and environmental impact analysis of the informal landfill in northern arid areas
ZHANG Xianqi, YIN Qin, NIAN Yuegang, SONG Yonghui, LIANG Yu, YAN Haihong
2021, 11(6): 1210-1216. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210120
Landfill has been the most common approach of waste disposal. The waste piles in different climates had different environmental impacts on the surroundings. The characteristics of landfill site should be fully considered and appropriate pollution prevention and remediation measures should be chosen during the treatment process. Taking the typical informal landfill in northern arid areas of China as the research object, through the detection and analysis of the physico-chemical properties, landfill gas composition and microbial community, the characteristics of the waste pile in the arid climates were studied. The results showed that the pile presented the slightly alkaline, with the content of organic matter fluctuating between 5.9%-17.4%, and the moisture between 5.4%-7.8%. The composition of landfill gas was similar to that of quasi aerobic landfill. The organic matter of the waste pile played a decisive role in the production of CH4, CO2 and CO. Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the dominant bacteria in the landfill. The species abundance was significantly affected by the process of waste degradation and the concentration of organic matter. In the northern arid areas, the amount of landfill leachate was small, and the landfill had minor effect on the surrounding environment. For the waste pile with the organic matter content less than 20% and pH weakly alkaline, the simple covering method could be adopted for differentiated treatment and remediation according to the local conditions when formulating the site closure scheme.
A bibliometric analysis of research development regarding big data-driven municipal waste management
ZHAN Liping, ZHAO Rui, YANG Tianxue, YU Yang
2021, 11(6): 1217-1225. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210081
The bibliometric approach was used to develop a holistic review on the research progress of big data driven municipal waste management. By using the literatures retrieved by the core collection database of Web of Science during the period of 2010-2020, a number of bibliometric indicators were incorporated into statistical analysis, including number of articles, research institutions, source journals and keywords, to understand its research status, grasp its development trend and identify the research hotspots, so as to provide a scientific basis for promoting the informatization and intelligent management of municipal solid waste management. The results showed that: The number of articles published increased year by year during the predefined time period, but the total number of articles published was relatively small, a total of 83, indicating that the research still belonged to a new and cutting-edge field. Publication carriers mainly included journal articles, conference articles and review articles, among which articles were mainly published in journals such as Sustainability, Journal of Cleaner Production, and Waste Management and had high citation frequency. Existing studies mainly considered the application of two dimensions of data engineering and data science to achieve the node management and control of the whole lifecycle of municipal waste, in which the former mainly focused on data source acquisition to record the flow direction and information of the waste lifecycle, and the latter provided decision support for improving management efficiency through modeling and analyzing all kinds of big data.
Research progress on the effect of heavy metal exposure on the evolution of antibiotic resistance genes in the environment
QIU Wenjie, QIN Yan, GAO Pin
2021, 11(6): 1226-1231. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210050
Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have been listed as an emerging contaminant in the environment. Their pollution dissemination and environmental evolution have become the attentive focuses and research hotspots in the field of ecological environment. Due to their non-degradability, heavy metals can stably exist in the environment and have long-term bioavailability, posing a continuous selection pressure on ARGs. The different resistant mechanisms of bacteria to antibiotics and heavy metals, as well as their synergistic effects were summarized. The influence of heavy metals on the environmental behaviors including gene abundance and horizontal transfer of ARGs was emphatically discussed. The results showed that a variety of heavy metals and their compounds would affect the abundance and horizontal transfer of ARGs. Different types and concentrations of heavy metals may have different effects. Heavy metals affected the horizontal transfer of ARGs mainly by affecting the secretion of EPS, changing the cells permeability, and affecting genes’ expression, etc. Different types of heavy metals could affect the horizontal transfer of ARGs in different ways. Although there had been many research reports on the impact of heavy metals on the environmental behavior process of ARGs, the internal mechanism of the influence of heavy metals on ARGs and the synergistic selection effect of heavy metals on the abundance and horizontal transfer of ARGs in different environmental media need to be further studied.
Analysis of virus research status in the environmental filed based on bibliometrics
LI Zhonghong, ZHANG Lieyu, XU Qiujin, LI Guowen, LI Caole, LI Jiaxi, LI Xiaoguang, CHEN Suhua
2021, 11(6): 1232-1240. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210016
In order to deeply understand the latest research progress, hot spots and development trends of virus research in the field of environment, and to objectively reflect the scientific contribution and influence of relevant countries, institutions and individuals in this field, Web of ScienceTM core collection database of ISI Web of Knowledge was adopted, and bibliometric analysis carried out on the relevant literatures collected in the database during 2000 to 2020 using HistCite Pro citation atlas analysis software and VOSviewer analysis software. The status of virus research in the environmental field in recent 20 years was analyzed from Top10 countries (regions), high productive authors, source journals, important research institutions, and research hotspots. The results indicated that the number of papers published in journals of virus research in the environmental filed showed an increasing trend from 2000 to 2020. Particularly, the number of articles of virus research in the environmental filed increased sharply in 2020 due to the outbreak of novel coronavirus epidemic; the country with the most published papers in this field was the United States, followed by China, although the average citation frequency was low. The Top3 most productive authors were Gerba C P, Sobsey M D and Katayama H. Top3 journals in this field were Water Research, Food and Environmental Virology and Environmental Science & Technology. The University of Arizona, the University of Barcelona and the US Environmental Protection Agency were among the Top3 institutions with the most publications in this research area. Keywords analysis found that most research focused on the field of water environment, including drinking water, wastewater, groundwater and surface water, etc, and the main viruses studied were norovirus, hepatitis A virus, adenovirus and other enterovirus. Detection of virus in environment and inactivation and removal of virus in environment media were hot topics of virus research in the environmental filed.
Evaluation of China’s biomass power generation subsidy policy based on policy tools
WANG Siyi, BAI Zihan, LÜ Lianhong, LUO Hong
2021, 11(6): 1241-1249. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210062
Biomass power generation has both environmental and social benefits, which is of great significance in facilitating China’s energy consumption revolution and rural revitalization, and in achieving the goal of carbon peak and carbon neutrality. The biomass generation subsidy policies issued at the national level until December 31, 2020 were reviewed. Based on the theories and methods of policy tools, the implementation and existing problems of biomass generation subsidy policies in China were evaluated from three aspects and five links. The three aspects included environment, supply and demand, while the five links included research and development, investment promotion, raw material resources, production grid connection, and consumption. And the optimization suggestions of biomass power generation subsidy policies were put forward. The results showed: first, the biomass power industry did not have enough subsidies for research and development, raw material supply and infrastructure at the present stage. Second, the fiscal subsidies had a tendency to gradually decline and shift to market mechanism, while the innovation of corresponding policy tools and management systems were still lacking. China’s biomass generation subsidy policies should focus more on technology research and development, fully involve the intermediate chains and improve the incentive mechanisms. Also, the market should be vigorously fostered and strengthened, and the market mechanism should be introduced under the guarantee of supporting measures to promote the long-term sustainable development of the industry.
Review on the connotation, characterization and application of environmental regulation
ZHANG Xiaomin, WU Na, WU Jia, FENG Qiang, FU Zeqiang
2021, 11(6): 1250-1257. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210056
Abstract(1547) PDF(1292KB)(108)
Environmental regulation is the sum of the policy measures implemented by the government and the restrictive effects of social organizations and the public on the emission behavior of the main bodies of pollution discharge in order to prevent and control environmental pollution and improve the environmental quality. There are various forms of environmental regulation. The definition and connotation of environmental regulation had been controversial in academic circles, and the characterization of environmental regulation intensity would directly affect academic research results and decision-making behavior. Based on the literature review of environmental regulation at home and abroad, the proposer, essence, purpose and function of environmental regulation were analyzed, and the characterization methods of environmental regulation intensity were summarized. At the same time, the research content of environmental regulation literature was summarized which was divided into two fields, i.e. social environmental effect and economic effect of environmental regulation, and its research application was reviewed. Finally, according to the results of literature review, a new interpretation of the definition of environmental regulation was given.
Research on the generation properties and pollution control of pharmaceutical manufacturing industry in China
YAO Guangyuan, LIU Yuqiang, LIU Jingcai, XU Ya
2021, 11(6): 1258-1265. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210238
Pharmaceutical manufacturing industry is one of 12 key industries to be treated in the national environmental protection plan. About 80% of the pollution is caused by the production of chemical raw drugs. The hazardous wastes produced by chemical raw drugs possess the hazardous characteristics of toxicity, flammability, corrosiveness, chemical reactivity, infectivity and leaching toxicity, etc., which has great potential harm to the ecological environment. Starting from the process of fermentation pharmacy, chemical synthesis pharmacy and extraction pharmacy, the generation and hazard properties of hazardous wastes in each link were summarized, and the current situations and existing problems of their utilization and disposal were analyzed. The countermeasures and suggestions on the utilization and disposal of typical hazardous wastes were put forward as follows: 1) reducing environmental risks in the source, 2) improving the level of cleaner production in the process, 3) enhancing the resource level of hazardous waste in the end use of pharmaceutical manufacturing industry.
Research on the generation and pollution characteristics of pesticide industrial hazardous wastes in China
DIE Qingqi, HUANG Zechun, YANG Yufei, HUANG Qifei, HAO Yaqiong
2021, 11(6): 1266-1272. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210394
Pesticides are widely produced and used in China. The hazardous wastes of pesticide industry has attracted extensive attention of the public and managers due to its large output, high toxicity and difficulty in disposal. The combing and clarification of the generation sources, pollution characteristics, and environmental risk key nodes of hazardous wastes in pesticide industry plays an important supporting role in the management of hazardous wastes in pesticide industry in China. Mother liquor, waste acid, waste salt and sludge are several types of hazardous wastes with the largest production in pesticide industry. There are many kinds of pollutants contained in hazardous wastes of pesticide industry, mainly including reaction raw material residues, side reaction products and effective components of pesticide. At present, the key environmental risk in the treatment and disposal of pesticide hazardous wastes lies in the utilization of by-products of pesticide industry. In view of the problems existing in the process of utilization and disposal, it was suggested that the ecological environment management department formulate perfect pollution control standards, adopt targeted policies, encourage and guide enterprises to develop advanced processes, carry out source reduction, improve the level of resource utilization, and comprehensively improve the level of environmental risk prevention and control of solid wastes in pesticide industry.
Present situation of production, utilization and disposal of hazardous waste in aluminium smelting industry and management countermeasures
LIU Hongbo, HAO Yaqiong, WU Hao, TIAN Shulei, HUANG Qifei
2021, 11(6): 1273-1280. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210110
With the rapid development of aluminium smelting industry in China, millions of tons of hazardous wastes such as carbon slag, overhaul slag and aluminum ash are generated every year. In order to promote the refined management of hazardous wastes in China, an in-depth research had been done, the current generation process link, pollution characteristics, utilization and disposal situation and management status of hazardous waste of aluminum smelting industry in China were combed, and the current problems in the utilization and disposal of hazardous waste and environmental management in the aluminum smelting industry were analyzed, especially the lack of hazardous waste advanced applicable utilization and disposal technologies, pollution control standards and comprehensive utilization product quality standards and other outstanding issues. From the aspect of improving the standard system, optimizing utilization and disposal technology, recommendations on the pollution prevention and control of aluminum smelting hazardous waste were put forward to help the green and healthy development of the aluminium metallurgy profession.