2011 Vol. 1, No. 1

Special Approximations
New Development of Environmental Engineering and Technical Innovation Based on Ecological Civilization Viewpoint
MENG Wei, FU Ze-qiang
2011, 1(1): 1-6. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.01.001
Abstract(5995) PDF(952KB)(1960)
The connotation of ecological civilization was dissected from the perspective of productive forces and production relations. The causes of eco-environmental problems were explored and the relationships among technology, economy and environment analyzed based on the evolution of human civilization. The significance of technological innovation and advancement in ecological civilization construction was discussed. The research shows that science and technology are important driving forces on human civilization evolution, but also the roots of the global and regional eco-environmental problems. The core of ecological civilization is the harmonious coexistence between human and nature. With the connotation in conformity with that of the Scientific Outlook of Development, ecological civilization in nature is the adjustment and reconstruction of the relationship between human and nature which is based on modern industrial civilization. It builds resources-saving and environmental-friendly production models and green consumption patterns in the scale of sustainable development of earth ecosystems and its goal is to achieve the harmony between environmental and economic development, and the integration between human and nature. The construction of ecological civilization depends on green technology revolution, and the environmental engineering and technical innovation are the important impetus on it. Finally, aiming at the environmental strategic demands and the increasingly deteriorative environmental problems in China, six basic principles and six key fields were proposed for the future development of environmental engineering and technical innovation.
Water Pollution Control Technology and Resource Utilization
Whole-Process Control Techniques and Practices for Toxic Organics in Industrial Wastewaters
ZHOU Yue-Xi, SONG Yu-Dong, JIANG Jin-Yuan, XI Hong-Bo, LAI Bo
2011, 1(1): 7-14. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.01.002
Abstract(7213) PDF(1187KB)(2158)
Reduction of toxic organics in industrial wastewater was one of the important links to build watershed quality target management system which considered human health and hydroecology safe as the water environmental targets. By learning from foreign experience and considering the actual situation of China, a whole-process technological strategy for toxic organic pollution control, based on the optimization of production and pollution control as an integrated system, was proposed against the disadvantages of traditional end-of-pipe solution. Analysis and characterization of organic pollutants in the wastewater were the base for the whole-process control. Improving of production process and management practice was used to reduce the amount of toxic organics discharged into wastewater. Then water-quality-based treatment processes were selected for wastewater streams with different characterization. Organic recovery and enhanced-degradation techniques were used for the pretreatment of wastewater. High-efficiency biological processes were used for biodegradation of toxic organics and the advanced treatment was used for further removal of toxic organics. For large-scale industrial complex, an optimization approach involving the inner-workshop, inter-workshop and between workshops and wastewater treatment plant, was proposed for resource conservation and high-efficient elimination of toxic organics. Establishment of technical systems and discharge standards for toxic organic elimination could promote the development and application of advanced technologies greatly.
Study on the Pretreatment and Copper Recovery from Berberine Wastewater Containing Copper by Fe-C Micro-electrolysis
XIAO Hong-Kang, XIAO Shu-Hu, SONG Yong-Hui, ZENG Ping, SHAO Hong, ZHANG Guo-Fang, LI Hui
2011, 1(1): 15-19. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.01.003
Abstract(6473) PDF(557KB)(1566)
Fe-C micro-electrolysis was applied to perform pretreatment of berberine pharmaceutical wastewater containing high concentration of Cu2+. The effects of reaction time, iron/carbon dosages and initial pH on the pretreatment results were investigated by single factor experiments, and the process of copper recovery was designed. The results showed that while treating the wastewater with initial concentration of Cu2+ 20 000 mg/L and berberine content of 1 700-1 900 mg/L, the berberine removal efficiency was above 70% and copper removal efficiency reached 99.9% with less than 20 mg/L Cu2+ remaining in the effluent and 18-19 kilograms of copper could be recovered by treatment one ton of such wastewater, under the optimized conditions of pH 2.0-3.0, reaction time 90min and the dosages of iron and carbon 25 and 30 g/L, respectively. The process was easily controlled and effective. It has laid foundation for larger scale treatment of berberine wastewater containing high concentration of Cu2+.
Treatment Effect of Microbubble Aeration Technology on Black-odor River Water 
HONG Tao, YE Chun, LI Chun-Hua, ZHANG Bao-Jun, ZHOU Lei
2011, 1(1): 20-25. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.01.004
Abstract(7064) PDF(768KB)(1583)
A microbubble generator produced domestically was used to treat the black-odor river water. A comparison study on treatment efficiency between the microbubble aeration and conventional aeration was carried out. Some important water quality indicators, including odorous chemicals (Geosmin and 2-MIB), CODCr, NH3-N, TP, color and turbidity were monitored during the experimental period. The results showed that microbubble generator produced higher DO concentration than conventional aeration under the same gas flow, and DO level produced by the former one was 9.87 mg/L in 60 min but only 6.54 mg/L in 100 min by the latter. During the experimental period, microbubble aeration obtained or was greatly closed to its highest removal rates of different pollutants at 60-80 min, while conventional aeration did not obtained or was greatly close to its highest removal rates until 80min or even later. Additionally, the removal rates of CODCr, NH3-N, Geosmin and 2-MIB coming from microbubble technology were 12%, 10%, 16% and 12% higher than those from the conventional aeration technology, respectively. The color and turbidity values increased at the beginning period because of the strong stirring from bubbles, and did not recover to their initial level until 60-80 min.
Air Pollution Control Technology and Usage of Clean Energy
Application of High Frequency Power Supply for ESP in the Power Industry of China and Its Potential for Energy Saving and Emissions Reducing
ZHU Fa-Hua, LI Hui, WANG Qiang
2011, 1(1): 26-32. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.01.005
Abstract(6550) PDF(981KB)(1605)
The mechanism for energy saving and emissions reducing of High Frequency Power Supply for ESP was analyzed. Its research and application at home and abroad were introduced, and its advantages compared with traditional power supply were pointed out. As one case, the dust-collector retrofit of Unit 8 of Shanghai Waigaoqiao Power Plant was studies for investigating the energy saving and emissions reducing effect. During daily operation after the retrofit of applying High Frequency Power Supply for ESP, the dust emissions decreased by 59.5%, from 42 mg/m3 to 17 mg/m3, and the energy consumption decreased by 71.7%. According to this application case and the successful experience in coal-fired units of other power plants, the potential of energy saving and emissions reducing in the power industry of China was analyzed. On the base of related statistical data from the power industry in 2009, if all the ESP adopted the High Frequency Power Supply, the electricity consumption of the ESP would decrease by 3.15 billion kW·h, equal to saving 1.077 million tons equivalent coal, and the total dust, SO2, NOx, CO2 emissions would decrease by 1.2-2.1 million tons, 10.7 thousand tons, 6.462-9.693 thousand tons, 3.10 million tons ,respectively.
Research on Decomposition of Carbon Dioxide by High Frequency Dielectric Barrier Discharge
ZHANG Fan, WANG Hong-chang, SHI Ying-jie, WANG Hong-mei, JING Peng, REN Hong-yan
2011, 1(1): 33-37. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.01.006
Abstract(7732) PDF(656KB)(1692)
The greenhouse effect as well as its induced global warming is one of important global environmental issues. To control greenhouse gas CO2, the decomposition of CO2 by high frequency dielectric barrier discharge was studied. The effect of applied voltage, frequency, cooling method and CO2 concentration on the decomposition characteristic of CO2 was investigated. The results showed that the decomposition of CO2 could be enhanced by increasing applied voltage or frequency within limits. Circulated water cooling or air cooling to reactor was helpful to decomposition of CO2 for controlling the secondary reaction. Although decreasing the CO2 concentration by mixing it with inert gases could increase the decomposition of CO2, the energy efficiency reduced.
Industry Trends - Practice Pollution Emission-line Monitoring
Using Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) for Continuous Emission Monitoring and Process Gases
SVANTE Wallin, HUANG Zhao-Kai, FAN Hai-Hua
2011, 1(1): 38-45. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.01.007
Abstract(6109) PDF(1206KB)(2189)
The principle and system design of DOAS indicated the system could monitor multi-gas from UV wavelength to IR wavelength. After a series of test and identification from TüV, the DOAS system had proven to have a good performance on continuous emission monitoring in stationary pollution source and waste incineration, especially to monitor Hg, HCl, NH3 and HF. The DOAS system could monitor different concentrations of process gas with several paths using one analyzer and work well where was corrosive, high temperature and high level dust,which made it possible to monitor progress gases. The system also could monitor different concentrations of gases in different places. No extract sample system, faster response speed, multi-component and multi-path monitoring by one analyzer laid foundation for the DOAS a good competition on the market.
Control and Management of Water Toxicity
Evaluation and Management Methods for Toxicity Control of Industrial Wastewater
HU Hong-Ying, WU Qian-Yuan, YANG Yang, WANG Hua-Tong
2011, 1(1): 46-51. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.01.008
Abstract(6236) PDF(824KB)(1975)
Evaluation and control of toxic pollutants in industrial wastewater is an import issue in the filed of water environmental pollution control. Only measuring quantitative integrated indexes such as CODCr,BOD5 is not sufficient for evaluating the safety of wastewater. Industrial wastewater water quality indexes including routine water quality indexes, bio-toxicity indexes and chemical characteristic indexes were proposed. Bio-toxicity tests and their application in industrial wastewater evaluation were discussed. The necessity and importance to carry out wastewater safety management using integrated bio-toxicity method was pointed out. It is suggested that the application of Daphnia toxicity tests for industrial wastewater safety evaluation should be the top choice in China. In addition, the progress of wastewater bio-toxicity control criteria at home and abroad was summarized, and it was pointed out that the bio-toxicity control index and toxicity discharge criteria for industrial wastewater which was suitable for China should be established according to water environmental creature type, toxic characteristic of industrial wastewater pollutants and control technology level.
Isolation, Identification and Characterization of Nitrobacteria for the Microbial Toxicity Testing System
XIE Jia-Yin, WANG Ping, LI Han-Dong, LI Ji, LIU Xiu-Hua
2011, 1(1): 52-56. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.01.009
Abstract(5435) PDF(616KB)(1701)
Four strains of high-efficiency nitrobacteria, F1, F4, Y2 and Z1, were isolated from one fishpond’s silt. The Sherlock microbial identification system (MIS) was used to perform the whole cellular fatty acid composition analysis and identification for the four strains, combined with physiological and biochemistry indexes analysis. They were preliminarily identified as Rhodococcus (F1 and F4), Pseudomonas (Y2) and Micrococcus (Z1). The test of nitrifying rate showed that the nitrifying rate of F1, F4, Y2 and Z1 reached 3.51, 3.43, 3.46 and 3.52 mg/(L·d), respectively. The four strains were mixed equally to form a bacterial complex and the orthogonal experiment under comprehensive cultivation conditions by changing cultivation conditions was carried out. The results showed that the highest NH4+-N conversion rate of 70.02% was obtained at 35℃, pH 8.5, with 20 mL medium content and 25% inoculum size. Factors affecting nitrification effectiveness were in the order of medium content > temperature > pH > inoculum size.
Solid Waste Pollution Prevention and Recycling Technology
Research on Methane Oxidation Capacity of Landfills Cover Materials and its Impact Factors
2011, 1(1): 57-62. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.01.010
Abstract(5414) PDF(751KB)(1997)
Through indoor simulation experiments, the methane oxidation properties of typical landfill cover materials were compared, and the impacts of cultivation temperature, moisture content, and inoculation measures on the methane oxidation performance were further analyzed. The results showed that the order of methane oxidation capacity was: aged refuse > aged cover soil > compost > new cover soil. Methane oxidation rate of cover materials was dramatically affected by moisture content, the degree of which was related with the physical properties of tested materials, and the optimum moisture content was about 25%. Meanwhile, with temperature rising, methane oxidation rate of tested materials increased first and then decreased, and the best cultivation temperature was about 25 ℃. In addition, the methane oxidation rate increased significantly after the new cover soil was inoculated with aged refuse, and the inoculation proportion was recommended as 1:10 (aged refuse : new cover soil, m/m).
Pollution Control Technology Evaluation and Planning
Thinking about the Twelfth Five-Year Planning of Air Pollutants Control for China's Coal-fired Power Plant
WANG Zhi-Han, PAN Li, ZHANG Jing-Jie, YANG Fan
2011, 1(1): 63-71. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.01.011
Abstract(6323) PDF(1468KB)(4001)
During the Eleventh Five-Year Plan period, great achievements of coal-fired power plant air pollution control in China's power industry, which had reached the world advanced level, had been made. Despite more than 10 times growth of thermal power installed capacity during the period, dust emissions remained a slight decrease; sulfur dioxide control made remarkable achievements, having made a decisive contribution to the national energy conservation and emission reduction targets; nitrogen oxide control made preliminary outcomes and flue gas denitrification projects had been in construction. During the Twelfth Five-Year Plan period, the main tasks of air pollution control in power industry will turn to nitrogen oxide control. In the planning, some principles should be considered as follows: source control and end-of-pipe treatment should be combined; key pollutants control and the best availability technologies should be insisted as a guide; key control indexes should be considered at different levels and written into national planning, national environmental protection planning and power industry environmental protection planning. In respect of air pollution control measures, it is necessary to change development mode of power, strengthen technical guidance and basic work, adhere to the technology and management innovation, and improve the management level. Key words:coal-fired power plant;air pollutant;Twelfth Five-Year Plan
Regional Ecological Risk Assessment and Its Utilization in Strategic Environmental Assessment
DUAN Fei-Zhou, REN Jing-Ming
2011, 1(1): 72-74. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.01.012
Abstract(6873) PDF(501KB)(1511)
Regional ecological risk assessment (ERA) was used to forecast and evaluate unfavorable ecological environment evolution trend with long time scale, large spatial scale, multi-medium source and complex-type pollution. As an efficient tool for sustainable environmental management, regional ERA had become a hot field in environmental science and environmental protection. Strategic environmental Assessment (SEA) usually, from the viewpoint of environmental management, carried out forecast and evaluation of the potential environmental effects caused by government decisions and development activities. It focused on long-term and accumulative environmental effects in key ecosystem functional units and sensitive environmental receptors and the long- and medium-term ecological risks. Regional ERA and SEA had strong consistency in their aims, targets and evaluation scales. Regional ERA could be important methodology and content of SEA. As the ecosystem complexity and ecological balance changes determined the complexity and uncertainty in the process of ecological assessment, especially when it was not enough for the study of the non-chemical risk sources, the research on high levels, e.g. community and ecosystem, of risk assessment, including assessment terminal choice and ecological effect quantitative evaluation method, should be strengthened.
Cleaner Production and Eco-industrial Technology
Current Status and Directions for Development of Cleaner Production Technology of Electrolytic Manganese Metal Industry in China
DUAN Ning, DAN Zhi-Gang, SONG Dan-Na
2011, 1(1): 75-81. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.01.013
Abstract(5988) PDF(1094KB)(2723)
No manganese no steel. Especially the coming out of 200 series stainless steel technology promoted the electrolytic manganese metal industry to rapidly become a big industry. Since this century, China has become the world largest producer and consumer of electrolytic manganese metal. Current capacity and technology level of the industry in China was introduced, the key limiting factors of development of the industry analyzed, its newest trends for cleaner production technology R&D presented, and its directions of R&D put forward.
Performance Assessment of Sector-Integrate Eco-Industrial Parks
2011, 1(1): 82-86. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.01.014
Abstract(5819) PDF(685KB)(1818)
With the introduction of the development of industrial parks (IP) in China, it was pointed out that there were some problems and limitations for the IP’s improvement in the future. It should be the prior way for some IPs in China to carry out the construction of eco-industrial parks (EIP) in their new stages of development and in solving the problems of economical intensive land use and natural resources constraints. Based on the difference of sectoral types and organizational structures, the EIPs are classified into sector-integrate EIP, sector-specific EIP and Venous EIP. The construction status of EIPs in China as well as the situation of related standard development was introduced. Compared with the standard for the sector-integrate EIPs developed by the Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP), the compliance status of individual indicators, including economic development, mass minimization and recycling and pollutant control ones, of the EIPs under construction was analyzed in 2006-2008. It is shown that despite the limit of development stage of the EIPs, the compliance rates of indicators of the sector-integrate EIPs in China develop in fluctuation and show a rising trend in general.
Environmental Industry of the United States: Policy Analysis and Lessons Learnt
2011, 1(1): 87-92. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.01.015
Abstract(6218) PDF(1019KB)(2241)
The United States takes a significant position in global environmental industry. The flourish of US environmental industry attributes to its effective industrial policies and incentives that, to a large extent, impose an important effect on many countries. The classification and development status of US environmental industry were introduced, and the framework of its environmental industry analyzed from the aspects of environmental regulation, technological innovation, commercialization, financial and tax incentives, and trade. Finally, combined with an analysis of the experiences and lessons of the development of US environmental industry, some policy suggestions on future development of the environmental industry in China were proposed.