2022 Vol. 12, No. 1

Display Method:
Thoughts on the overall establishment of total carbon dioxide emission control system
JIANG Hua, LI Yanping, GAO Jian, LÜ Lianhong, MA Zhanyun, FU Jiafeng, YANG Pingjian
2022, 12(1): 1-5. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210778
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Establishing a total carbon dioxide emission control system in a coordinated manner is a clear requirement of the central government, and a major measure to ensure the realization of the “30·60” dual carbon goal. On the basis of analyzing the current situation and trend of carbon dioxide emission in China, the problems existing in the implementation of total carbon dioxide emission control in China were systematically combed. Several countermeasures and suggestions were put forward, including establishing an inventory of carbon dioxide emissions, making clear the bottom line, calculating the profit and loss of carbon dioxide emissions in different regions, considering the allocation of total carbon dioxide targets in a coordinated manner all over the country, planning and formulating emission reduction tasks in a phased, hierarchical and classified manner, implementing orderly emission reduction measures that were compatible with economic development, including total quantity control targets, completion of emission reduction tasks and assessment in the central environmental protection supervision, and improving the mechanism to encourage the enthusiasm of reducing emission of multiple subjects such as the governments, enterprises and individuals, in order to provide reference for the dual carbon target constraint, force structural adjustment, and realize economic transformation and high-quality development.
Emission characteristics of road silt loading at the exit of typical construction sites in autumn in Tongzhou District, Beijing
WANG Haibin, FAN Shoubin, HAN Lihui, LI Tingting, QU Song, CUI Haoran, LIU Junfang
2022, 12(1): 6-14. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210115
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In order to study the variation characteristics of road silt loading at exits of different types of construction sites, mixing stations and construction waste disposal sites, the road silt loading monitoring on exit roads of main construction sites (stations) and 137 conventional roads (referred to public roads that were not affected by construction sites, including urban roads and highways) were carried out in Tongzhou District, Beijing in autumn 2020. Dusts emission factors and emissions at exit roads of typical construction sites (stations) were calculated and analyzed based on AP-42 model. The results showed that the average silt loading of 100 m roads in two directions at the exits of different types of construction sites (stations) ranked as mixing station > construction waste disposal site > demolition site > housing construction site > water works site > landscaping site > traffic site. The average silt loading at 100 m roads in two directions at the exit of each typical construction site (station) was 1.3-21.1 times that of conventional road (0.59 g/m 2). The silt loading of the exit road of typical construction sites (stations) varied with the distance from the exit. There were obvious differences between different types of construction sites. PM10 and PM2.5 dust emission factors of 200 m roads in two directions of the exit were of 1.26-7.37 times higher than the background values, and the corresponding road dust emission was equivalent to an increase of 0.10-2.55 km of the road length at the background point, with the average value being equivalent to an increase of the corresponding road length by 1.16 km for each of the exit roads of 13 typical construction sites (stations). The spatial distribution of road silt loading and road dust PM10 and PM2.5 emissions at the exit and surrounding areas of all monitoring sites (stations) was lower in the north and higher in the south, and its influencing factors were closely related to the type and density distribution of construction sites (stations), the type of exit roads and vehicle flow.
An empirical study of ozone generation by ultraviolet photolysis and high-voltage static electricity in cooking oil fume purification technology
YANG Chao, LIN Ziyin, WU Jianping, ZHANG Gangfeng, HE Xiaochu
2022, 12(1): 15-21. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210136
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The development of the catering industry continues to maintain a steady growth trend, while a series of oil fume pollution problems such as the contradiction between business and residents, odor complaints are increasingly prominent. At present, there are various types of purification facilities available for catering enterprises in the treatment of cooking oil fumes. The composite products of ultraviolet (UV) photolytic and high-voltage static electricity occupy a dominant position in oil fume purification market. However, UV photolytic and high-voltage static electricity may produce secondary pollution of ozone while purifying oil fumes. In this study, the ozone concentration under different operating combinations of UV photolysis and high-voltage static electricity was measured and analyzed in a certain practical application scenario. The results showed that both UV photolysis and high-voltage static electricity would produce ozone when used alone; under the same standard design of air volume, the ozone concentration produced by UV photolysis was 96% higher than that of high-voltage static electricity. The more the UV lamps with the same parameters used, the higher the ozone concentration produced. The ozone concentration had a certain correlation with cooking conditions.
Analysis of PM2.5 pollution characteristics of a winter heavy pollution process in Xingtai City
WANG Han, WANG Chongchen, WANG Shulan, ZHANG Wenjie, ZHANG Jingqiao, LI hui, ZHANG Meng, WANG Shaobo
2022, 12(1): 22-28. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210059
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In order to understand the pollution characteristics of heavy pollution process in Xingtai City in autumn and winter, PM2.5 samples were collected at three points in the city, including No.1 Middle School, Neiqiu and Shahe, during the pollution process on November 10-16, 2018, to analyze the changes of PM2.5 concentration and chemical composition. The results showed that during the heavy pollution process, the average PM2.5 concentration of Xingtai City was 176.2 μg/m3, which exceeded the secondary standard limit of Ambient Air Quality Standards (GB 3095-2012) by 1.4 times. The water-soluble ions were mainly NO3 , SO4 2−and NH4 +, with the average concentrations of (32.3±13.4), (16.4±9.0) and (15.0±6.8)μg/m3, which accounted for 18.3%, 9.3% and 8.5% of PM2.5, respectively. The concentration of the three ions increased by 0.8, 2.3 and 1.2 times when the pollution was aggravated compared with the initial stage of the pollution. The average concentration of OC was (12.9±5.8) μg/m3, accounting for 7.4% of PM2.5, and the average concentration of EC was (4.6±1.4) μg/m3, accounting for 2.7% of PM2.5. This pollution process in Xingtai City was dominated by secondary pollution, which was mainly affected by coal combustion and motor vehicle emissions.
Simulation of the reduction effect of vegetation buffer zone on phosphorus load of farmland NPS pollution in Qiandao Lake area based on VFSMOD model
LI Yun, WANG Bin, YUAN Jing, CHU Zhaosheng, JIN Chunling
2022, 12(1): 29-37. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210173
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Vegetation buffer zone is a powerful ecological measure to control agricultural non-point source (NPS) pollution. Its purification capacity is affected by many factors. The specific conditions of different pollution source areas should be considered in the design and construction of the vegetation buffer zone. Taking the farmland runoff in Qiandao Lake as an example, the VFSMOD model was used to analyze the influence of vegetation buffer band width, slope and rainfall on the reduction of inflow sediment. The reduction and change of the inflow total phosphorus (TP) load were estimated and fitted. The simulation results showed that the reduction capacity of the vegetation buffer zone was positively correlated with the width of buffer zone and negatively correlated with the rainfall and slope; when the slope of the vegetation buffer zone was 3%, the pollutant reduction effect was the best; the reduction of pollutants was generally concentrated on the front 10 m section of the vegetation buffer zone. According to the simulation results, a design work curve based on the width of vegetation buffer zone in the rich, flat and dry years in runoff areas of different lengths was proposed. During the design, the corresponding buffer zone width could be flexibly determined according to the expected reduction target and the actual runoff area site conditions. This study could provide technical guidance for the width design of vegetation buffer zone when it was used to purify farmland NPS pollution.
Analysis of DOM composition, the formation potential of trihalomethanes and its removal from water source of Z City in winter
HAO Guizhen, LU Bingheng, XU Li, ZHAO Yong, FAN Yucheng
2022, 12(1): 38-45. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210158
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Taking the water source of Z City in winter as the research object, the relationship between the fluorescence composition, source, composition, humification degree of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and the generation potential of trihalomethanes (THMs) was investigated by the combined use of 3D fluorescence spectroscopy, resin separation and classification, and UV-vis spectrophotometry. The results showed that a total of three fluorescence peaks were resolved by 3D fluorescence spectra: protein-like material (C1), ultraviolet humic acid material (C2) and terrestrial/artificial humic material (C3) in the raw water of the water source. The three fluorescence peaks in Q River and X River were 4.50, 10.75, 7.56 and 1.33, 9.24, 7.56, respectively. The fluorescence source index (FI) and biogenic index (BIX) both reflected that DOM of the water source was mainly terrestrial source input. In addition, after the chemical classification of DOM of the water source, the concentrations of five components were as follows: hydrophobic organic acids (HoA) > hydrophilic substances (HiM) > hydrophobic neutral organic substances (HoN) > hydrophobic alkaline organic substances (HoB) > weak hydrophobic acidic organic substances (wHoA). CHCl 3, CHClBr2 and CHBrCl2 were produced by chlorination of Q River raw water, and CHCl3 and CHBrCl2 were produced by chlorination of X River, indicating that the river water was not significantly polluted by industry. At the same time, the study of disinfection by-product THMs generation potential was conducted on each chemically graded component of DOM of the water source, and it was found that the main precursors of THMs were HoA and HiM, and HoA, HiM and wHoA had a strong ability to generate THMs, which was consistent with SUVA values of UV absorption characteristics, indicating that the ability to generate THMs was also strong. The industrial polyaluminium chloride should be selected to enhance coagulation for removal.
Ionic composition variation characteristics and regression analysis of spring water in Jinan City
YANG Qing, WANG Zhaojun, TANG Houquan, TIAN Yong
2022, 12(1): 46-54. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210165
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Taking SO4 2−, NO3 , Cl in spring water in Jinan City as the research objects, the influence factors from three aspects of precipitation, source supplement and human activities were selected, and the correlation between the influence factors and the concentrations of the three ions was studied. The path analysis was used to determine the direct and indirect effects of the influencing factors. The action size and direction of the influencing factors on the change of ion concentrations were determined by calculating the decision coefficient. The regression equation was established and used to predict the concentration of NO3 in spring water and the total amount of wastewater that could be carried by environment. The results showed that the concentration of SO4 2−, Cl and NO3 in spring water showed an upward trend, and SO4 2− and Cl increased significantly (P < 0.01) from 2008 to 2019. There was a significant positive correlation between the amount of wastewater and the concentration of SO 4 2− and Cl (P < 0.01, P < 0.05), and the correlation coefficients were 0.811 and 0.577, respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between the concentration of H + and NO3 in source supplement reservoir (P < 0.05), and the correlation coefficient was 0.692. Among the influencing factors, the amount of wastewater had the greatest direct effect on the concentration of SO 4 2−, Cl and NO3 in spring water. The amount of wastewater played an increasing role in the change of SO4 2− and Cl concentrations. Precipitation, H+ concentration and the amount of wastewater in reservoir played an increasing role in NO3 concentration change of spring water , and H+ in reservoir was the main decision variable. The equation predicted that NO3 concentration of spring water would be 8.42 mg/L in 2020, meeting Class Ⅲ standard of Quality Standard for Ground Water (GB/T 14818-2017). If NO3 concentration of spring water kept below 10 mg/L, the total amount of wastewater could be controlled within 6324 million cubic meters.
Study on photocatalytic functional material and verification of its application for improving water environment quality of lake and reservoir
QIU Jian, ZHU Hao, LI Guangpeng, PANG Zhi, GENG Bo, CHEN Bin, YUAN Yudong, LIU Xianghui, XU Liang, ZHANG Lei, YANG Haichao
2022, 12(1): 55-61. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210204
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In order to verify the applicability of the photocatalytic functional materials, graphene based titanium oxides, under actual working conditions and their purification effect on polluted water, two sites were selected respectively in Xihu Reservoir of Dali Bai Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province (ST-1) and Changnongtang Reservoir of Shengsi County, Zhoushan City, Zhejiang Province (ST-2), to carry out field in situ enclosure tests for 105-107 days. The results showed that the use of photocatalytic functional materials coupled with indigenous organisms (or photocatalysis coupling ecological purification technology) had a good effect on reducing pollutants in two different types of water. During the experiment, the concentrations of NH3, TP and COD decreased by 71.8%, 45.5% and 27.3% together with 3.8%, 62.1% and 33.3%, at ST-1 and ST-2 respectively. After the implementation of the technology, the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the water was relatively stable, which were 6.05-9.50 and 6.60-10.60, respectively. The transparency of water body was improved by 109.0% and 185.7%, respectively. In addition, the technology had inhibitory effect on algae. Compared with the control group, the total biomass of algae in ST-1 and ST-2 decreased by 30.3% and 64.6%, respectively.
Numerical simulation and response surface optimization of micro-vortex flocculation process for high turbidity water treatment
XU Qike, DAI Hongling, ZHAO Guoqiang, HU Fengping
2022, 12(1): 62-69. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210620
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The optimization of continuous process was conducted for the treatment of high turbidity water by micro-vortex flocculation process. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) numerical simulation software was applied to explore the changes of liquid flow state in the flocculation area under different flow rate (flow velocity) so as to determine the optimal flocculation time. By using response surface Box-Behnken design method, the effects of flow rate, coagulant dosing and reflux ratio and their interactions on the treatment effectiveness of high turbidity water by micro-vortex flocculation process were studied. The research showed that as the flow rate (flow velocity) increased, the turbulent kinetic energy, effective energy consumption, G-value and its rate of change in the flocculation zone gradually increased, but too excessive flow velocity could lead to insufficient flocculation time, and thus the optimal flow rate range was 4.2-7.0 m3/h. or the optimal flow velocity was 0.41-0.67 m/s. The reflux ratio was a highly significant factor affecting the micro-vortex flocculation process, followed by the coagulant dosage and flow rate, with a synergistic effect between the three. The best process parameters of micro-vortex flocculation process for treating high turbidity water were: flow rate 5.9 m3/h, coagulant dosage 34.8 mg/L, and reflux ratio 0.8; the removal rates of turbidity, UV254 and CODMn were 99.23%, 95.03%, and 71.42%, respectively. The optimized micro-vortex flocculation process could provide a new way for high turbidity water treatment technology with certain application prospects.
Progress on the detection technology of free radicals in waters
LU Chenglong, CHANG Hong, SUN Fuhong
2022, 12(1): 70-80. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210322
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The chemical properties of free radicals are highly active and easy to cause redox reaction of gain and loss of electrons, which is an important factor for the degradation of pollutants in environmental waters. Environmental identification and analysis of free radicals are of great significance to reveal the degradation and transformation mechanism of pollutants in the environment. However, due to extremely low environmental concentration, high reactive activity and short life of free radicals, coupled with the interference of complex environmental matrices, their environmental analysis has been the focus and difficulty of the research. Meanwhile, most studies at present focus on some known free radicals, but there are few studies on the identification of unknown free radicals. In this study, on the basis of systematically summarizing the detection methods and application status of typical radicals, the advantages and disadvantages of different detection methods were expounded, especially for the detection methods suitable for typical free radicals such as hydroxyl free radicals in natural waters. It was proposed that spin capture combined with mass spectrometry, which could simultaneously detect many known radicals and identify unknown free radicals with high specificity and sensitivity, would be the research direction of radical detection in natural waters.
Ammonia nitrogen removal by nitrifying bacteria from different habitats
DU Hangtao, XU Rui, XU Hui, SHI Wenqing, DENG Haoyuan, HE Junlong, ZHU Lin
2022, 12(1): 81-91. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210380
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Nitrifying bacteria are one of the key functional groups in microbial nitrogen removal, and the screening of high-quality nitrifying bacteria is beneficial to enhancing nitrogen removal. The functions of nitrifying bacteria from river sediment, soil natural environment and artificial habitat in the market were compared, and their community structures were analyzed using molecular biological methods. The results showed that the activities of nitrifying bacteria from the sediment habitat and their resistance abilities to ammonia nitrogen, pH and salinity were higher than those from the other two habitats. The abundance and community structure analysis of nitrifying bacteria in each habitat by MPN-PCR and clone library profiling showed that the biomass of Nitrospira in the sediment habitat was high, which could promote the ammonia nitrogen removal rate of nitrifying bacteria in this habitat. For sediment nitrifying bacteria, the higher resistance to ammonium and pH was due to the presence of Nitrobacter, while the higher resistance ability to salinity was possibly due to the presence of salt-tolerant species or moderately halophilic specific genotypes of nitrifying bacteria in the habitat. In addition, these specific genotypes of nitrifying bacteria were identified as uncultured microbes by sequence alignment by Blast program.
Research progress on the biological control of cyanobacterial blooms
WANG Min, LIU Hao, WANG Jiangnan, QIU Yu, MA Zengling
2022, 12(1): 92-99. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210094
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Water eutrophication can cause cyanobacteria blooms, which seriously affects the health of water ecosystem and threatens the safety of drinking water. Eutrophication and cyanobacteria blooms are one of the difficult problems in lake water pollution control in China. Generally, there are physical method, chemical method and biological method in control cyanobacterial blooms. In recent years, biological method has gradually attracted the attention of scholars at home and abroad due to their economically-feasible and environment-friendly characteristics. In this study, the biological control of cyanobacterial blooms using microbial method, plant method, and animal method were reviewed. The action mechanisms, application advantages and existing problems of every method were reviewed. At last, several aspects that need to be further studied were proposed.
Research progress of in situ covering materials for river polluted sediment and their applications
CHEN Chongjun, PAN Yuwei, XIE Jiawei, XIE Junxiang
2022, 12(1): 100-109. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210107
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In situ covering technology is one of the important means to control sediment pollutants, and the selection and optimization of covering materials as the technical core is a research hotspot. The main principles of in situ covering technology for sediment pollutants was summarized, and the remediation mechanism and remediation efficiency of three commonly used covering materials, including calcium peroxide, zeolite and biochar, were introduced. In view of the shortcomings of single covering material, such as weak selectivity of target pollutants, secondary release of pollutants, too fast consumption rate of materials and short remediation period, the method of modifying with modifier or combined use of multiple covering materials was proposed, which could effectively prolong the treatment time of covering materials, avoid the release of pollutants after short-term inhibition, and improve the remediation efficiency of covering materials for sediment pollutants. The advantages and application prospects of covering material modification process and combined process of various covering materials in the remediation of contaminated sediment were reviewed. At the same time, the combination of various covering materials, the collection and reuse of covering materials and the reduction of ecological risk were put forward for further research.
Bibliometric analysis of lake sediments based on Web of Science and CNKI
ZHANG Yaran, FU Zhenghui, WANG Shuhang, JIANG Xia, XU Ye, LI Wei
2022, 12(1): 110-118. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210113
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To understand the related research situation and future development trend of lake sediment research, the research methods of information visualization and network analysis were adopted, and the social network was drawn based on the papers in the field of lake sediment research for nearly 35 years (1985-2019) from Web of Science (WoS) and CNKI. The development trends, research hotspots and cutting-edge trends in the field of lake sediment research were analyzed. WoS database showed that the number of papers published in the field of lake sediment research at home and abroad showed a significant upward trend in recent 35 years. The top three countries in terms of document volume were the United States, China and Germany. In recent five years, the number of papers published in China was the highest, but the total citation frequency was relatively low. Bindler R, Birks H J B and Bakke J were the top 3 authors in the field.Journal of Paleolimnology, Hydrobiologia,and Limnology and Oceanography were the top 3 journals in this field in WoS database. The results showed that the number of papers published in CNKI database lagged behind that in WoS database, and domestic researchers tended to contribute to foreign journals. Journal of Lake Sciences was the largest source of literatures in CNKI database, among which Zhang Enlou, Jin Zhangdong and Xue Bin were the top three authors. Based on the results of the two databases, the research hotspots in the field of lake sediment research at home and abroad were roughly the same, mainly including the pollution and risk assessment of heavy metals and organic pollutants in sediments, and lake sediments and climate change research, etc. In the future, the research on PMF model and multivariate statistical methods, including correlation analysis, cluster analysis and factor analysis, need to be further strengthened.
Comprehensive screening and prediction of effective and lasting water purification and phosphorus removal substrates
WANG Mingyu, ZHU Lin, WANG Peng
2022, 12(1): 119-126. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210155
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In order to select effective and lasting phosphorus removal substrates, eight kinds of substrates, including tourmaline ceramsite, red mud ceramsite, attapulgite, silica gel, sponge iron, activated carbon, volcanic rock and zeolite, were taken for phosphorus static adsorption experiments. Three substrates were selected for single-substrate columnar phosphorus removal percolation experiment and microstructure characterization, to obtain the phosphorus removal characteristics of each substrate, and to predict their long-term phosphorus removal effect by modeling based on percolation experimental data. The investigation results showed that the adsorption capacities of the eight substrates for phosphorus were quite different, the top three of which were tourmaline ceramsite, red clay ceramsite, and zeolite in order. In the seepage experiment, the phosphorus removal rate of tourmaline ceramsite remained at 67% after 111 days, while that of red mud ceramsite dropped to 37%. The total phosphorus concentration of effluent from different substrates presented differently over time, and the pertinent statistical models showed good predictability. It was predicted by the models that the phosphorus removal rate of tourmaline ceramsite would drop to 50% in about 160 days, and the adsorption saturation would be reached in about 300 days. In comparison, the red mud ceramsite would be saturated on adsorption in about 150 days. The microstructure of the substrates, including their specific surface area and surface characteristics, and their chemical element composition had a significant effect on the removal rate.
Preparation of Hangjin clay-supported sulfidated zero-valent iron and its performance on phosphate removal
LIAN Yining, WU Hongbin, CAI Jinshui, GONG Bin, KANG Dejun, JIAN Zhiqiang, GONG Yaping, LÜ Jiangdu
2022, 12(1): 127-136. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210137
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Natural Hangjin clay with large specific surface area and excellent adsorption properties was used as a carrier to synthesize Hangjin clay-supported sulfidated zero-valent iron (HJ@S-nZVI). Preparation conditions such as the iron loading ratio, the molar ratio of sulfide iron (S/Fe) and the aging time were optimized. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and specific surface area (SSA) and other methods were utilized to comprehensively characterize and analyze the characteristics of HJ@S-nZVI. The effects of the dosage, initial pH, and co-existing ions on the phosphate removal efficiency were investigated, and the adsorption performance and adsorption mechanism of phosphate removal by HJ@S-nZVI were studied based on the adsorption isotherms and adsorption kinetics. The results showed that the optimized preparation conditions of HJ@S-nZVI were: iron loading ratio was 0.25, S/Fe was 0.01, and aging time was 10 d. SEM, EDS and element distribution map analysis manifested that sulfidated zero-valent iron was successfully loaded on the surface of Hangjin clay in the form of spherical particles. XPS analysis showed that the main existing forms of iron on the surface of HJ@S-nZVI were FeS and FeOOH. The dosage, initial pH and SiO3 2− had a greater influence on phosphate removal, while SO4 2−, CO3 2− and Cl had no obvious competitive influence. The adsorption process of phosphate by HJ@S-nZVI conformed to Freundlich isotherm model (R2=0.992). Under different initial concentrations, the quasi-second-order kinetic model could better describe the phosphate removal process(R2>0.995).
Research progress of MBR in rural domestic wastewater treatment
HE Zhiqin, CHEN Sheng, LI Yun
2022, 12(1): 137-144. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210177
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Due to the large fluctuation of the influent quality and quantity of rural domestic wastewater, it is not easy to choose the appropriate treatment technology. In addition, due to the rural residents’ habit of repeatedly using domestic wastewater in some areas of water shortage, the concentration of organic pollutants in rural domestic wastewater is higher than that in urban wastewater. Membrane bioreactor (MBR) has been widely used in the field of wastewater treatment because of its small footprint, high biochemical efficiency and good effluent quality. The application status of MBR technology in rural domestic wastewater at home and small-scale domestic wastewater at abroad, the membrane pollution control and the energy consumption optimization were reviewed. Aiming at the problem of membrane fouling control, it was suggested to conduct in-depth research from several aspects, such as strengthening electric field assistance in MBR pollution control, hydrophilic modification of membrane with inorganic nano materials and in-depth exploration of pollution mechanism. In view of the problem of energy saving and consumption reduction, it was suggested to control the aeration to optimize the overall energy consumption and reduce the operation cost, so as to promote the dissemination and application of MBR in rural areas.
Effects of vegetation restoration methods on vegetation growth indexes and soil physical and chemical properties of spoil ground in red-soil hilly region
DONG Huanhuan, ZHAO Hong, DENG Junshuang, YU Xiaoqing, XIE Jinsong, LIAO Yuan, SUN Binfeng
2022, 12(1): 145-152. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210127
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Taking an abandoned soil field of Jiangxi expressway as an example, the key techniques of vegetation restoration in the abandoned soil field of red-soil hilly area was discussed. Based on the understanding of the climatic characteristics and geological conditions of the spoil ground, three vegetation schemes and two basic fertilizer schemes were set up by soil testing formula and grass irrigation mixed sowing method. The three vegetation schemes were: Vegetation allocation 1 (Bermudagrass + Bahia grass + Alfalfa + White clover + Cassia corymbosa+ Amorpha fruticosa), Vegetation allocation 2 (Alfalfa + White clover + Bermudagrass + Horse thorn + Beautiful lespedeza), and conventional spray seeding (Bermudagrass + Alfalfa + Horse thorn). The two basic fertilizer schemes were Fertilizer scheme 1 (50 g/m2 compound fertilizer) and Fertilizer scheme 2 (100 g/m2 compound fertilizer). The vegetation restoration and soil physical and chemical properties were analyzed to determine the best combination. The results showed that: under Vegetation allocation 1 + Fertilizer schemes 2, the vegetation grew well, the density was high, and the coverage rate reached 80% after one month. And the physical and chemical properties of soil were significantly changed compared with other treatments. Compared with conventional spray seeding, the soil capacity decreased by 0.17 g/cm3, and the total porosity of soil, organic matter and alkaline nitrogen increased by 19.68%, 62% and 8%, respectively, which could effectively solve the problem of uneven green coverage and long time in the spoil ground, prevent and reduce soil and water loss, and thus have great economic and ecological benefits.
Research progress of rhizosphere effect in the remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil
JING Wenjie, QUAN Zhanjun, HAN Yu, CAI Xuan, MA Junyong
2022, 12(1): 153-160. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210505
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The rhizosphere effect mediated by rhizosphere exudates shows that the species and activities of microorganisms, and soil physicochemical properties such as enzymes, pH and organic matter in rhizosphere soil are significantly different from those in non-rhizosphere soil. Rhizosphere effect is greatly affected by soil types and plant species, etc., and has been widely studied and used in agricultural production and forestry protection. In recent years, some progress had been made in the research of rhizosphere effect on soil remediation, but systematic understanding of its remediation mechanism and influencing factors still needed to be further improved. In this study, the remediation mechanism and influencing factors of rhizosphere effect in heavy metal contaminated soil were reviewed and analyzed, and the measures to strengthen the remediation effect were proposed to improve the soil bioremediation efficiency by rhizosphere effect. The review indicated that the rhizosphere effects drove the significant differences in the form and distribution of heavy metals between the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils. Affected by soil types, plant functional traits, heavy metal properties and other factors, soil improvement and inoculation of exogenous microorganisms could enhance the remediation effect of plant rhizosphere on heavy metals contaminated soil. However, current studies were in short term and small scale, and had neglected the rhizosphere effects at different growth stages of perennial plants on heavy metal remediation, and the long cycle of plant growth and development set a challenge for screening of specific remediation plants. With the deeper study of rhizosphere effect in the field of soil remediation, it was necessary to carry out more systematic, comprehensive and long-term index monitoring researches to identify the primary and secondary factors affecting the restoration of heavy metals by rhizosphere effect. At the same time, specific remediation plants of different heavy metal contaminated soil types were needed to be selected to facilitate the establishment of soil bioremediation plant resource bank.
Characteristics of biochar and its effects and mechanism on soil properties
CHEN Feijie, XIA Huijuan, LIU Fude, KONG Weijing, LU Shaoyong
2022, 12(1): 161-172. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210067
Abstract(2862) HTML (352) PDF(1461KB)(335)
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Biochar is a kind of soil improvement and remediation material with high carbon content, specific surface area, porosity and adsorption properties. It can influence the soil through physical, chemical and biological ways, but the influence and mechanism vary with soil properties and biochar types. The composition, specific surface area and porosity, pH and surface functional groups of biochar and the raw materials and charring technology of the biochar were summariezed. Effects of biochar addition on soil structure improvement, soil fertility improvement, soil pH regulation, contaminated soil repairment, biological activity enhancement and nutrient transformation promotion were comprehensively generalized. It was found that the soil was remediated or improved by biochar mainly through filling and expansion, pore interception, cementation and coagulation, physical adsorption, chemical adsorption, ion exchange, coordination and complexation, coprecipitation, microbial mediation and so on. The effects and mechanism of biochar on soil were clarified from physical, chemical and biological aspects, respectively. The modification and charring technology of biochar, the proportion of mixed application of biochar and the environmental risk assessment after biochar application in the future should be the key research contents.
Research progress of soil amelioration of acidified soil by soil amendments
LIU Jiaoxian, CUI Jun, LIU Hongbao, PAN Qi, HE Xiaosong
2022, 12(1): 173-184. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210119
Abstract(1474) HTML (314) PDF(797KB)(196)
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Improving acidified soil to improve agricultural productivity is an important task for improving crop quality, income and developing green agriculture. Soil amendments can reduce soil acidity, increase soil nutrients, optimize soil structure, enhance microbial activity, and improve soil microenvironment, which are of great significance in remediation of the acidified soil. The causes of soil acidification in terms of the ion migration and transformation were expounded, and the classification, action mechanism, improvement effect of the soil amendments and their influence on crop growing were summarized. The existing problems of the soil amendments in terms of acidified soil improvement was pointed out. The research and development directions of new-type soil amendments as well as the influencing factors in their applications were put forward. Finally, the future development trends of the soil amendments were prospected, which could provide reference for the research, development, and preparation of the soil amendments.
Study on the production and recovery level of waste PET drinking bottles in China
BI Yingying, LIU Jingyang, DONG Li, SUN Xiaoming
2022, 12(1): 185-190. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210123
Abstract(418) HTML (611) PDF(1342KB)(77)
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Polyethylene terephthalate(PET) drinking bottles are a kind of disposable plastic packaging, which are widely used with a short cycle and a large amount of waste. From the perspectives of saving resources, reducing carbon emissions and protecting the environment, the recycling of waste PET drinking bottles is of great significance. Based on the positive correlation between the output of PET bottled drinks and the consumption of PET bottles, the quantity response relationship among “total output of drinks - output of PET bottled drinks - production or consumption of PET bottles” was established. Combined with grey model, the waste PET drinking bottle production from 2020 to 2025 in China was predicted. According to the status of PET drinking bottles recycling and qualitative analysis of material metabolism, the main flow directions of waste PET drinking bottles were determined. Through questionnaire surveys and field measurements, the overall level of PET drinking bottles recycling in China at the present stage was calculated. The results showed that, from 2020 to 2025, the annual production of waste PET drinking bottles in China would be in the range of 3.7 million to 4.09 million tons, and they would mainly flow to the recycling system, kitchen waste treatment plants, landfills, waste incineration power plants and beaches. And the total proportion of waste PET drinking bottles flowing to kitchen waste treatment plants, landfills, waste incineration power plants and beaches would be less than 5%, that is, the recycling rate of waste PET drinking bottles would be more than 95% in China on the whole, being at a relatively high recycling level.
Study on pollution characteristics and environmental risk of coal coking residues
HUANG Gengbo, YANG Yanmei, HUANG Qifei, LI Xuebing, YANG Yufei
2022, 12(1): 191-198. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210088
Abstract(425) HTML (232) PDF(839KB)(20)
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The tar slag, coal tar, ammonium sulfate tar, coke powder and residual sludge were collected from a coal coking enterprise. The concentrations and different ring distribution of 16 priority controlled polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and 8 heavy metals were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Meanwhile, the environmental risks of coal coking residues were analyzed by calculating the BaP equivalent toxicity concentration and the potential ecological risk index of heavy metals. The results showed that the total PAHs concentrations of five residues ranged from 0.94 mg/kg to 238 367 mg/kg, with the order of coal tar > tar slag > ammonium sulfate tar > coke powder > residual sludge, and the concentrations of highly mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds in tar slag, coal tar and ammonium sulfate tar exceeded the limits of Identification Standards for Hazardous Wastes- Identification for Toxic Substance Content (GB 5085.6—2007). The concentration of Zn in tar slag, coal tar, coke powder and residual sludge was the highest, and ammonium sulfate tar had the highest concentration of As. The BaP equivalent toxic concentration of the five residues was 0.31-9 586.96 mg/kg, and coal tar, tar slag and ammonium sulfate tar had higher cancer risk. Hg had the highest potential environmental risk among the five residues, and all the five residues had a strong potential ecological risk to the soil.
Effects of ecological restoration patterns on soil microbial community functional diversity in Zoige alpine desertification grassland
ZHU Sufeng, LIU Yujie, ZHANG Qiang, JIANG Cong, JIAN Xiaomei, SHUI Wei
2022, 12(1): 199-206. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210138
Abstract(387) HTML (249) PDF(5110KB)(58)
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The prominent ecological strategic position of Zoige Plateau plays an important role in maintaining regional biodiversity and ecosystem stability. The study on the functional diversity of soil microbial community under different ecological restoration models is helpful to provide a scientific basis for the ecological environment reconstruction of alpine grassland and other similar regions in China, such as returning grazing to grassland, returning farmland to forest and grassland. The soil microbial community under different restoration modes in Zoige grassland was taken as the research object, and Biolog microplate method was used to compare the effects of ecological management measures on the ecosystem of sandy grassland and the diversity of soil microbial function. The results showed that the artificial ecological restoration model improved the activity of soil microorganisms in the sandy grassland, and the average well color development (AWCD) value of the restoration sample plot under the shrub-grass intercropping mode and the natural restoration sample plot reached 0.761 at stable state. Shannon index, Simpson index and McIntosh index of soil microbial community in the shrub-grass intercropping mode were higher than those in the grassland planting mode, and the index values were 3.290, 0.960 and 10.408, respectively. This mode could provide more niches for soil microbial communities. The carbon source capacity of grassland soil microbial community under shrub-grass intercropping restoration mode was higher than that under other restoration modes. Carbohydrates and amino acids were the most used carbon sources in Zoige grassland soil microbial community. The artificial management mode of shrub-grass intercropping combined with the biological measures to increase the carbon sources such as carbohydrates and amino acids in the grassland soil could be used to control the alpine sandy grassland in Zoige more efficiently.
Impact of land-use change on ecosystem service value in Southwest China
ZHANG Yuying, SUN Meiying, YANG Rongjin, ZHANG Le
2022, 12(1): 207-214. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210159
Abstract(373) HTML (199) PDF(2940KB)(39)
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The land use remote sensing image data of Southwest China in 2000, 2010 and 2020 were selected to study the land-use change by using the land use dynamic degree, and the ecosystem service value (ESV) was evaluated according to the equivalent factor method. The results showed that: Forest land, cultivated land and grassland were the main land uses in Southwest China, accounting for 48%, 28% and 20% of the total area, respectively. The changes of artificial surface, grassland, woodland and cultivated land were significant in the past 20 years, with the net area changes of 11 971.18, −8 738.63, −5 344.95 and −2 244.40 km2, respectively. The land use dynamic degree in Southwest China showed an upward trend, especially the land use change accelerated after 2010, and the dynamic degree of artificial surface had the largest positive change. From 2000 to 2020, the total ESV showed a downward trend, decreasing by 19.555 billion yuan, of which Sichuan and Yunnan Provinces declined significantly. The change trend of various ESVs was similar to that of land use types, and the decrease of forest land, grassland and cultivated land was the main factor leading to ESV loss. In the future development, the protection of woodland, grassland, basic farmland and the construction of high-standard farmland should be strengthened, the land for urban and rural construction should be rationally planned, and the pressure of economic growth on land resources and ecosystem should be relieved.
Evaluation exploration of the impacts of synthetic biotechnologies on biodiversity
WANG Baowei, CHANG Jiang, WANG Zhiwen
2022, 12(1): 215-223. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210213
Abstract(228) HTML (129) PDF(573KB)(26)
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Synthetic biotechnologies are recently emerged novel biotechnologies, and represent the new stage of modern biotechnology. A series of important progresses have been achieved in many fields such as microbial cell factories, synthetic microbial consortium, artificial genomes synthesis, genome editing and gene drives, thanks to the intensive support from the government, industrial and academia in many countries. With the further growth of research, development and application of synthetic biotechnologies, the evaluation of their impacts on the biodiversity of the ecosystem, which is one of the critical issues related to human society, becomes a very important topic. Based on the evaluation principle of preventing and reducing negative risks, promoting beneficial development and application, and protecting biodiversity, the impact of research, development and application of synthetic biotechnology on biodiversity was qualitatively analyzed. A two-dimensional evaluation method was adopted, which comprehensively considered the proper application scope of synthetic biotechnologies and the safety of products, components and organisms based on synthetic biotechnology. The countermeasures and suggestions for coping with potential risks of synthetic biotechnology on biodiversity were put forward, so as to provide references for the healthy development of synthetic biotechnologies for the prosper of human society.
Planning and practice of ecological protection and restoration project of “mountain-river-forest-farmland-lake-grassland” in Lishui City, Zhejiang Province
SU Hailei, WANG Fanfan, CHEN Haiyan, LIU Xuesong, WEI Yuan, LUO Yan, CHEN Lingmin, BAI Mindong
2022, 12(1): 224-231. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210170
Abstract(635) HTML (475) PDF(4727KB)(215)
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The ecological protection and restoration projects of mountain-river-forest-farmland-lake-grassland (briefly referred to as “mountain-river projects”) is an important part of the construction of ecological civilization and the basis and guarantee for the transformation from “green waters and lush mountains” to “golden mountains and silver mountains” (“two mountains”). As the largest city in area in Zhejiang Province, Lishui is located in the intersection zone of Yangtze River Economic Belt, “One Road and One Belt” and “Haixi District”. Lishui is the ecological barrier in East China, and the core area of Zhejiang grand garden. Taking Lishui City as an example, the ecological protection and restoration of mountain-river-forest-farmland-lake-grassland was conducted. On the basis of understanding the eco-environment of Lishui City, the ecological protection and restoration idea of protection first, restoration as a supplement was determined. The ecological protection and restoration function of Lishui was divided into “three zones and one belt”. Five major ecological construction projects and 20 secondary projects were mainly deployed, including watershed water environment protection and remediation, mine environment remediation, soil erosion protection and remediation, forest and biodiversity protection, and land remediation and soil improvement. The relationship between the practice of “mountain-river projects” and the transformation of “two mountains” was discussed. The research results could provide support for the future planning of “mountain-river projects” and the exploration of “two mountains” transformation.
Research progress of ecosystem air purification service
ZHANG Xin, YOU Chunhe, LI Shijing, TIAN Meirong, FENG Chaoyang, ZHANG Lu
2022, 12(1): 232-239. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210168
Abstract(360) HTML (186) PDF(500KB)(32)
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Ecosystem services are irreplaceable for human well-being and regional sustainable development. Air purification is one of the main types of ecosystem services, which is of great significance to the improvement of human settlement quality and the construction of regional ecological civilization. The ecosystem air purification service and its quantitative research results were reviewed, the source, concept and connotation of the ecosystem air purification service were elaborated, the advantages and disadvantages of the market theory method and the ecological model method for estimating air purification services were summarized, and the research practices and developments related to air purification services at home and abroad was combed. In view of the existing problems, such as the imperfect theoretical system of air purification service research, fewer research methods on temporal and spatial dynamics, relatively single ecosystem types, and insufficient research results on scale integration, it was suggested that the future research should strengthen the pertinence of the theoretical basis of ecosystem air purification services, pay attention to the dynamic and precise research method, and enhance the multi-scale integration and the diversity of ecosystem types, etc.
Study on the influencing factors of emptying time of bioretention facilities
LI Kai, WANG Jianlong, LIN Hongjun, WANG Zexi, PENG Liuwei, ZHANG Changhe
2022, 12(1): 240-247. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210156
Abstract(336) HTML (224) PDF(1882KB)(18)
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Bioretention facilities are one of the measures widely used in sponge city construction in China. During the design, operation and maintenance of bioretention facilities, the emptying time has an important influence on the total runoff volume control efficiency and plant growth. However, there is a lack of systematic research on the influencing factors of emptying time. The effects of storage-layer height, rainfall interval, submerged-area height and structure type on the emptying time were investigated via laboratory experiments. The results showed that under the test conditions, the discharge time of the storage layer of different structure types of bioretention facilities was 10-140 min, and the complete discharge time was 6-47 h. The emptying time of the storage layer increased with the increase of the storage-layer water depth and the submerged-area height, and decreased with the increase of the rainfall interval. The emptying time of the storage layer water was affected most significantly by the storage height. The total emptying time increased with the increase of water storage water depth and rainfall interval, and decreased with the increase of submerged-area height. The rainfall interval had the greatest effect on the total emptying time. The research results could provide technical support for the design and optimization of bioretention facilities in the process of sponge city construction.
Review of urban ecological security research
DENG Haodan, YE Lufeng, LIU Lixiang, YANG Ke, HAN Yongwei
2022, 12(1): 248-259. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210179
Abstract(309) HTML (198) PDF(632KB)(35)
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The development of urbanization has caused a massive influx of people into cities, leading to the emergence of various urban ecological security (UES) problems. UES is an important insurance for the production and living of city dwellers, and is of great significance to promote green development and the harmonious coexistence between human and nature. The related concepts of UES was analyzed, and the main findings and deficiencies of the current research on it were introduced from four aspects, i.e. the UES assessment, the analysis of influence factors, the prediction and early warning of UES and the construction of urban pattern and spatial planning based on ecological security. On this basis, the key researches that need to be carried out in the future were pointed out: 1) Explore the establishment of an UES evaluation standard system to achieve standardized evaluation of urban ecological safety and serve management practices; 2) Strengthen research on UES on a larger scale, such as from the perspective of urban agglomeration or urban-rural coordination; 3) Strengthen people-oriented urban ecological service security research, and attach importance to the application of ecosystem services in the field of ecological security.
Analysis on the coupling coordination of resource-environment-economy of coal industry: a case of Yulin City
LI Yanlin, RUAN Jiuli, WANG Yibo, LI Xianhan, GUO Yuwen
2022, 12(1): 260-266. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210126
Abstract(299) HTML (183) PDF(1127KB)(28)
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The measurement of coupling coordination level is of great significance for the study of sustainable development of coal industry. According to the coupling mechanism of the resource-environment-economy (REE) system of coal industry, the evaluation index system was constructed. The evaluation values of coal industry REE system as well as that of each subsystem were calculated by entropy weight method and TOPSIS method. The coupling coordination degree was calculated by the coupling coordination degree model to evaluate the coupling coordination level of coal industry REE system. The results showed that the comprehensive evaluation value of coal industry REE system in Yulin City showed a "U" type trend, which was similar to the evaluation value of environment subsystem and had an obvious improvement. The coupling coordination level of coal industry REE system had been continuously optimized and was in the coordination range, showing a steady-downward-upward trend. The coupling coordination degree was 0.86 in 2018, reaching a good coupling coordination level.
Projection of residential annual water consumption in Hengshui City based on dynamic gray model groups
WU Yongqiang, LI Mingkai, TANG Zhongnan, WANG Shusheng, WANG Jintao
2022, 12(1): 267-274. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210233
Abstract(440) HTML (282) PDF(991KB)(35)
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To address the randomness and periodicity of the residential water consumption (RWC) data along with overfitting problem caused by the large dispersion of traditional gray model, a dynamic gray model group consisting of five GM(1,1) models was proposed based on gray model theory. Based on the annual RWC data of Hengshui City from 2007 to 2019, the dynamic gray model group was used to project the future changes of annual RWC in Hengshui City during 2020-2030, and meanwhile residual tests and corrections were conducted using the projected results; the dynamic gray model group was compared with five GM(1,1) models to test the model accuracy. The results showed that the projected relative error of the dynamic gray model group was smaller than that of the traditional GM(1, 1) model, implying better accuracy and applicability. The annual RWC in Hengshui approached 17.95 million m3 in 2019 and was expected to increase to 28.62 million m3 in 2030, which indicated that the future RWC in Hengshui City would be at an obvious uptrend, and this result was in line with the future population growth and socio-economic development trend. The projected results of RWC in this study was capable of providing reference for optimal water supply and water resources allocation in Hengshui City.
Comprehensive environmental risk assessment of petrochemical industry in Liaodong Bay coastal waters
ZHANG Xiaoxia, ZHENG Binghui, WANG Xing, YIN Xueyan, CHENG Jiayi
2022, 12(1): 275-283. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210091
Abstract(317) HTML (210) PDF(4569KB)(20)
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In order to evaluate the adverse impacts of port petrochemical industry on the marine eco-environment, theoretical system of environmental disaster and mathematical statistics were used to build an environmental risk assessment model, which was based on the eco-environment monitoring data of Liaodong Bay coastal waters in 2014-2018. The environmental risk assessment of the coastal waters in Liaodong Bay was carried out by using the technology of ArcGIS space vector superposition analysis technology. The results showed that the overall environmental risk carrying capacity of Liaodong Bay coastal waters was vulnerable, with the vulnerability increasing from open sea to the nearshore. At the same time, according to the environmental monitoring data in recent years, the eco-environmental status had a tendency to develop in an unfavorable direction. Meanwhile, the study sea area was in a medium risk situation as a whole, and approximately 17.6% of the coastal waters were at high risk, mainly distributed in the sea area from Shuangtaizi Estuary to Liaohe Estuary, with the distribution closely related to the position of port petrochemical industry and its transportation route. Therefore, it was suggested that the management departments should pay close attention to the high-risk areas, and establish a comprehensive management system for risk prevention and control, rapid emergency disposal and disaster prevention and reduction.
Coding method and application of pollutant generation and discharge coefficients of industrial pollution sources
ZHANG Yue, QIAO Qi, BAI Lu, LI Xueying, LIU Dandan, XU Wen
2022, 12(1): 284-292. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210134
Abstract(223) HTML (118) PDF(1162KB)(14)
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Encoding is an important tool to convert text information into computer programming code. For the wide application of coefficients, the coding method for converting the production and discharge coefficients into numeric and letter codes has been established. Based on the expression of generation and discharge coefficients of 2017 edition, the pollutant generation coefficients and discharge accounting parameters were coded respectively. The main factors determined the coding structures and contents of the pollutant generation coefficients, including industries, pollution generation sections, products, raw materials, processes, scales and pollutant types. The coding of emission accounting parameters was separately coded by the pollution treatment technology and the operation efficiency of treatment facilities. According to the types and characteristics of various key factors, the code rules and the number of digits were formulated, and the coding scheme was applied using the "3825 photovoltaic equipment and components manufacturing industry" as an example. The pollution coefficient coding was 22-bit coding, and emission accounting parameter coding was 28-bit or more coding. This coding method will provide direct support for the establishment of the information platform for pollution production and emissions coefficients, the continuous updating of coefficients, and the application to more environmental management systems.
Local standards for domestic wastewater treatment in rural areas of China: current situation, problems and suggestion
LI Yun, XIA Xunfeng, CHEN Sheng, LI Song, LIU Ping
2022, 12(1): 293-300. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210061
Abstract(549) HTML (230) PDF(1670KB)(71)
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The water pollution discharge standards of rural domestic wastewater treatment (WWT) facilities are the key to the selection of treatment technologies, construction investment, and operation and maintenance. The scientific and reasonable formulation of discharge standards is of great significance. The applicable scope, classification, selection of pollutant control indicators and limits, and monitoring and sampling methods of local standards for water pollutants discharge from rural domestic WWT facilities that had been issued in 30 provinces in China were compared and analyzed. Some problems were found for the local standards, for instance, the application scope and classification of the standards were unscientific, the index limits were not clearly regionalized, and the monitoring and sampling methods were unclear. Accordingly relevant suggestions were put forward including scientifically formulating classification standards based on functional divisions and processing scales, selecting pollutant control indicators according to local conditions, setting the index limits with lenient and strict policy, further clarifying the monitoring frequency and sampling methods, and strengthening researches on the criteria of standards, in order to provide guidance and reference for improving the rural domestic wastewater standard system.
Comparison and application of detoxification pretreatment technology for high-aniline river water polluted by a chemical industry park explosion accident
SONG Yudong, WU Changyong, WANG Panxin, SUN Chen, ZHANG Hengliang, YU Yin, GUO Qingwei, SONG Yonghui
2022, 12(1): 301-307. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210400
Abstract(244) HTML (161) PDF(2515KB)(31)
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An explosion occurred in a chemical industry park in Jiangsu Province, causing a large amount of high-aniline river water to accumulate in the surrounding rivers, which had high inhibition against activated sludge. Detoxification pretreatment was needed before the polluted river water entered the park wastewater treatment plant for emergency treatment. The pretreatment effects of Fenton oxidation, activated carbon adsorption and biological treatment on the polluted river water were studied and compared. Fenton oxidation method had high treatment efficiency, medium operation cost and the on-site treatment facilities were easy to transform and utilize; finally, it was selected as the detoxification pretreatment process of the high-aniline river water. The operation of the actual emergency treatment project showed that Fenton oxidation pretreatment realized effective aniline removal from the heavily polluted river water. In the fluctuated aniline concentration of 30-90 mg/L, the effluent aniline concentrations of the batch tests was basically stable below 1 mg/L, which ensured the stable operation of the park wastewater treatment plant, and finally the effluent met the discharge standard.
Exploration and application of emergency treatment methods for thallium pollution in rivers
WANG Panxin, WU Changyong, HU Yingming, FU Liya, SONG Yudong, XI Hongbo, YU Yin, ZHAO Meng
2022, 12(1): 308-313. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210398
Abstract(503) HTML (234) PDF(1194KB)(35)
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In recent years, thallium pollution incidents have occurred frequently, and the development of a practical and efficient emergency method for thallium removal has become an urgent need to improve eco-environment risk prevention and ensure drinking water safety. Taking an abnormal incidence of thallium concentration in a river as an example, the effectiveness and feasibility of four methods, including direct coagulation, oxidation+coagulation, oxidation+adsorption and sulfide precipitation, in the emergency treatment of thallium pollution were compared and analyzed. The results showed that the sulfide precipitation method could reduce the thallium concentration from about 5 times above the standard to less than 0.1 μg/L, meeting the limit requirement of thallium in the surface water source of centralized domestic drinking water in Environmental Quality Standards for Surface Water (GB 3838-2002). Maintaining pH in the river in the range of 8-9 through adding sodium hydroxide could effectively reduce the production of H2S. This method was successfully applied to the emergency treatment of the abnormal thallium concentration incident and achieved good effects.
Research progress of emergency technology for sudden environmental pollution based on CiteSpace analysis
XIE Xiaolin, XIANG Yang, QIAN Feng, SUN Chen, SONG Yonghui
2022, 12(1): 314-321. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210436
Abstract(293) HTML (176) PDF(890KB)(41)
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It is of great significance for the technical innovation and scientific management to sort out the research progress in the field of emergency treatment technologies for environmental pollution in China. To analyze the research progress of emergency treatment technologies for environmental emergencies, the relevant literature collected in CNKI database from 1995 to 2020 was used as the data source and CiteSpace software was applied to visualize the literature characteristics, hot topics and research trends based on the bibliometric analysis method. The results showed that the field of environmental pollution emergency treatment technologies in China started late, the number of literature was small, the research foundation was relatively weak and there was still a lack of strong leaders and core research teams. The emergency treatment technologies were mainly concentrated in the field of water environment. The keyword cluster analysis found that the emergency treatment technology researches mainly focused on emergency monitoring, technology screening, activated carbon adsorption, coagulation precipitation and other aspects. The keyword clustering timeline showed that the future development directions should be mainly technology screening, activated carbon adsorption, emergency monitoring and so on.
Emergency removal technologies and case study of typical water pollutants in abrupt environmental accidents
FU Liya, SONG Yudong, WANG Panxin, ZHAO Meng, HUANG Qi, XI Hongbo, YU Yin, WU Changyong
2022, 12(1): 322-328. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210401
Abstract(645) HTML (167) PDF(588KB)(91)
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Abrupt environmental accidents discharge a large number of pollutants in a short period of time, causing pollution to the ecological environment, with sudden occurrence, rapid diffusion, initial risk unknown, difficult disposal and other characteristics. At present, the frequent occurrence of environmental emergencies in China has not changed fundamentally, and the technical system of environmental emergency disposal is not perfect. According to the technical requirements for emergency treatment of environmental pollution in China, the characteristics and emergency technical requirements of water pollutants in abrupt environmental accidents were systematically summarized around three scenarios of polluted water: emergency treatment in river, emergency treatment of waterworks and emergency treatment of sewage treatment plants in industrial parks. The common emergency removal technologies of typical water pollutants such as heavy metals and organic pollutants in the emergency process of abrupt water pollution were reviewed. Combined with the current technical progress, the key directions of emergency removal technology of water pollutants in the future were prospected.