2021 Vol. 11, No. 3

Display Method:
Cover + Contents
2021, 11(3): .
Theoretical thought and practice of eco-environment synergistic management in the Yangtze River
LI Haisheng, WANG Lijing, ZHANG Zeqian, DENG Chenning
2021, 11(3): 409-417. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210071
Based on the actual needs of ecological environmental protection and restoration of the Yangtze River, theoretical thought on synergistic management of the ecological environment of the Yangtze River from multiple dimensions was carried out, the practical experience of National Joint Research Center for Yangtze River Conservation (NCYC) in the past two years was summarized, and suggestions on the further synergistic management of the ecological environment of the Yangtze River was put forward. The results showed that: 1) The synergistic management of the ecological environment of the Yangtze River has four core connotations, namely, synergy of governance subjects, governance objectives, treatment measures and performance evaluation. Its purpose is to realize the maximization of governance effectiveness and maintain the public interest of the ecological environment to the greatest extent. 2) Strengthening the synergistic management of the ecological environment of the Yangtze River is of great significance. It is an important measure to implement the spirit of General Secretary Xi Jinping’s important speeches on promoting the development of the Yangtze River Economic Belt, an inherent requirement for modernizing the ecological environmental governance system and capacity of the Yangtze River, and an inevitable choice for promoting the fundamental improvement of the ecological environmental quality of the Yangtze River and building a beautiful Yangtze River. 3) NCYC had innovatively constructed the synergistic model of the joint research for the Yangtze River ecological environmental conservation based on the coupling architecture of “Umbrella-shaped” and “Fan-shaped” models. And a joint research service mechanism had been established through joint tackling of key problems and technological assistance for cities contracted by different research teams. With scientific and technological synergistic innovation as the core, the system interaction of “the five systems” was promoted, including expert resources, information knowledge, governance subjects, governance objectives and measures, and examination and estimation of the Yangtze River protection and conservation. The orderly synergy of the “the six aspects” was realized, including data resources, intelligence knowledge, responsibility, examination and estimation, quality control of method, and joint prevention and control. Then, it helped the national and local governments achieve practical results in implementing scientific and precise pollution control, maximized the overall effectiveness of the think tank of scientific and technological talents, and promoted the improvement of the Yangtze River ecological environmental synergistic management capacity. 4) It was suggested that in the future, the institution and mechanism of scientific and technological synergistic innovation in joint research should continue to be improved and popularized, the theoretical research and practical exploration related to synergistic management of the Yangtze River ecological environment continue to be deepened, and the construction of the performance evaluation mechanism of synergistic management of the Yangtze River ecological environment be accelerated.
Change of wetland landscape patterns and its driving factors in Pearl River Delta urban agglomeration
HU Panpan, LI Feng, HU Dan, CHEN Xinchuang, LIU Yali, WANG Yue
2021, 11(3): 418-427. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20200142
Wetland ecosystem is an important part of urban ecological security system. Pearl River Delta (PRD) urban agglomeration was used as a research area, and the spatial and temporal distribution of wetland resources in the area was investigated using multi-period remote sensing data. At the same time, the changes of wetland structure and landscape pattern were analyzed combined with GIS technology, and eight driving factors were selected for principal component analysis to explore the causes of dynamic changes of wetland landscape in the background of rapid urbanization. The results showed that the main wetland types in PRD urban agglomeration were paddy fields, followed by reservoirs, ponds and canals, and the distribution area of lakes, beaches and marshes was relatively small. From 2000 to 2015, the wetland area of PRD urban agglomeration had been lost, with a total loss of 1 613 km2, of which the most serious loss occurred during 2000-2005, and then the damage trend gradually slowed down; the sum of the wetland loss areas in Foshan, Guangzhou, Zhongshan and Huizhou accounted for about 77% of the total loss area. Through the study of the spatio-temporal conversion of wetlands, it was found that human activities had a far-reaching impact on wetland conversion in the past 15 years, mainly manifested in the occupation of wetlands in construction land, the transfer of paddy fields to reservoir/ponds, and the reclamation of beaches into paddy fields. The study of landscape index showed that paddy fields and canals were the dominant landscape types in PRD, with high degree of aggregation, while the spatial distribution of other wetland types tended to be discrete. It was found that human activities were the main factors affecting the wetland landscape pattern changes, and urban expansion was the main pathways of encroachment on wetlands. In addition, the wetland landscape was also influenced by the policies and climate.
Study on the characteristics of land use change in Chishui River Basin from 1990 to 2018
MA Huan, FENG Chaoyang, SONG Ting, JI Wei, YANG Jiao, LI Fujie
2021, 11(3): 428-436. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20200144
Changes of land use can directly reflect the extent of human activities. The Chishui River is an important tributary of the upper reaches of Yangtze River Basin. In the context of the great protection of the Yangtze River, mastering the dynamic changes of land use is conducive to land optimization management and regional sustainable development. Based on the land use data of seven periods from 1990 to 2018, and according to the regional characteristics, seven land use types, i.e. paddy field, dry land, forest land, grassland, water area, urban and rural construction land, and unused land were integrated to analyze the spatial distribution and temporal and spatial changes of land use types in Chishui River Basin in terms of distribution pattern, single dynamic degree of land use, and land use transfer matrix. The results showed that the area proportions of land use types in Chishui River Basin was in the order of forest land> dry land> paddy field> grassland> urban and rural construction land> water area> unused land. The forest land was widely distributed, mainly concentrated in the lower reaches of Chishui River Basin. Dry lands were mostly distributed in the upper reaches of the basin, and paddy fields were mostly distributed in the lower reaches of the basin. Grassland and urban and rural construction land were mostly distributed along the river valley. The dynamic degree of each land use type gradually increased over time. The dynamic changes of grassland, urban and rural construction land increased significantly from 2015 to 2018. Affected by the policy of returning farmland to forest, there has been more conversion between forest land and dry land, and the degree of conversion in 2006-2015 was higher than that in 1990-2000. The conversion of grassland, urban and rural construction land and other land use types increased significantly in 2006-2015 and 2015-2018. The total GDP growth rate of Chishui River Basin had been increasing year by year and, compared with the growth rate of urban and rural construction land, it had slowed down from 2015 to 2018. The economic output per unit of construction land area had been decreasing year by year, so the land use efficiency needed to be improved.
Characteristics of bacterial population of water from Tianjin Lingang Coastal Wetland Park
MA Xiangju, XU Huitao, WANG Liping
2021, 11(3): 437-446. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20200259
To understand the bacterial community and its difference characteristics of water bodies in different functional areas of Tianjin Lingang Coastal Wetland Park in different seasons, the high-throughput sequencing technology was used to analyze the bacterial population structure of water from the intake, subsurface wetland, landscape water area and the water outlet of the wetland park in summer and autumn, and the principal component analysis was used to analyze its main environmental influential factors. The results showed that Shannon diversity index of bacteria ranged from 4.25 to 5.14 in summer and from 3.07 to 4.32 in autumn, Chao index of population abundance ranged from 569.10 to 894.04 in summer and from 473.22 to 995.81 in autumn. Overall, Shannon diversity index was higher in summer than that in autumn. And the highest bacterial diversity and richness in summer was in subsurface wetland, while in autumn it was in water intake. A total of 34 phyla, 423 genera, and 641 species of bacteria were detected in summer. The main dominant phyla included Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, and the main dominant genera included Rhodobacter, Hydrogenophaga, norank_f_FamilyⅠ. In comparison, a total of 34 phyla, 520 genera, and 786 species of bacteria were detected in autumn. The main dominant phyla included Proteobacteria, Actinomycetes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and the main dominant genera includedRhodobacter, Psychrobacter, Synechococcus. Among the dominant genera, the relative abundance of Hydrogenophaga was high only in the subsurface wetland in summer, and that of Psychrobacter was high only in the subsurface wetland in autumn. However, they were not detected in other area, indicating that these genera were unique in the subsurface wetland. The Venn map of species based on OTU levels showed that there were 187 common species in different areas of the wetland park in summer, and 110 species in autumn. The principal component analysis based on OTU level between species composition and environmental factors showed that the main environmental factors affecting the bacterial population composition of wetland parks included temperature, pH, $NO_3^-$-N, and NH3-N.
Accounting of ecosystem services value of broad beach river: taking the main stream of Liaohe River as an example
WANG Dewang, HE Ping, XU Jie, HOU Liping, REN Ying
2021, 11(3): 447-458. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20200271
In order to solve the problem that the linear river ecosystem services value accounting should be based on the uniformity accounting for a long time, which is difficult to reflect the spatial differences, high-precision remote sensing data and conventional data were integrated to distinguish the ecosystem services types from three kinds of space, namely channel, floodplain and the river as a whole, the calculation methods and parameters of GIS platform were combed, a set of spatial accounting methods for broad beach river ecosystem services value was constructed, and it was applied in the case of the main stream of Liaohe River (MSLR). The results showed that in 2013, the total value of ecosystem services in the MSLR was 53.739 billion yuan, of which flood regulation and climate regulation accounted for 46.99% and 29.22%, respectively. The values of ecosystem services per unit area of different land use types were different, with higher values of river channel and pit and pond, and lower values of dry land, shrub, woodland, grassland, tidal flat and paddy field, being close to each other. The total value of ecosystem services in the MSLR in 2013 increased by 10.163 billion yuan compared with that in 2009; among the 4 cities (Tieling, Shenyang, Anshan and Panjin) that the MSLR flowed through, Panjin City in Liaohe River estuary had highest ecosystem services per unit area and the highest total value of ecosystem services.
Screening of priority pollutants in Liaodong Bay
ZHU Yunjie, ZHU Xiaoyan, LIN Yingzi, XU Qiujin
2021, 11(3): 459-467. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20200222
Liaodong Bay is an important coastal economic zone in China and has carried a large number of pollutants discharged from coastal areas for many years. Heavy metal and organic pollution are serious in coastal waters. The composite scoring method and potential risk index method were used to screen the priority pollutants based on the 12 pollutants of water quality monitoring data in the coastal waters of Liaodong Bay in 2016-2018. The results showed that the total score of the 12 pollutants using the composite scoring method was 29.4-83.2. There were three types of class Ⅰ pollutants, including Hg (83.2), Cd (83.2) and Pb (75.8), and there were three categories of class Ⅱ pollutants, namely Cu (68.4), Cr (63.2) and As (60.8). The results of potential risk index method ranged from 4 to 22. There were three types of class Ⅰ pollutants, including Cd (22), Cu (20) and As (20), and there were three categories of class Ⅱ pollutants, including Hg (19), Cr (19) and Pb (19). Combining the two grading methods, considering that the common primary pollutant screened by the two methods was Cu and the average detected concentrations of Hg, Pb, Cr, As and Cu in Liaodong Bay was 0.04, 2, 7.1, 1.8, 3.8 μg/L, respectively, while the corresponding water quality criterion continuous concentration recommended by US EPA was 0.94, 5.6, 50, 36, 3.1 μg/L, respectively, only Cu exceeded the water quality criterion continuous concentration. At the same time, the average concentration of Cu (3.8 μg/L) in Liaodong Bay was much higher than the set value of harmful concentration (1.90 μg/L) that protected 95% aquatic species. Therefore, Cd and Cu were proposed to be included in the list of priority pollutants for control in Liaodong Bay.
Research on optimal allocation and evaluation of allowable pollutant discharge in Zhangjiakou section of Yongding River
WANG Xiaonan, LEI Kun, SUN Mingdong, LÜ Xubo, CHENG Quanguo
2021, 11(3): 468-475. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20200197
The environmental Gini coefficient was used to analyze the influence of land, population and gross domestic product (GDP) on chemical oxygen demand (CODCr) discharge of water pollutants in Zhangjiakou section of Yongding River Basin. At the same time, the distribution coefficient of each control unit was optimized by maximizing the utilization of environmental efficiency and minimizing Gini coefficient model, and a relatively fair distribution reduction scheme was made by environmental Gini coefficient method. The contribution coefficient of each control unit was calculated, the unfairness factor was judged, the spatial difference of the unfairness factor in the study area was analyzed, and the reasonable suggestions on regional development model were put forward. The results showed that the environmental Gini coefficient of each control unit based on land area, population and GDP was 0.504 4, 0.306 8 and 0.234 1, respectively, and the Gini coefficient based on land area was far beyond the warning value. Among CODCr discharge reduction schemes obtained after optimized allocation, Xuanhua District of Zhangjiakou City should have the highest reduction rate of 16%. According to the analysis of contribution coefficient, the contribution coefficient of Zhangjiakou downtown area was less than 0.5, and the unfairness was the most prominent. It was suggested that the regional industrial structure should be adjusted appropriately to improve the utilization rate of resources and reduce the discharge of pollutants.
Agricultural ammonia emission inventory and characteristics analysis of typical cities in Huanghuai Plain: take Bozhou City as an example
CHEN Wen, XUE Zhigang, YING Na, ZHANG Hao, XU Peng, YANG Li, DU Jinhong, SHI Yingjie
2021, 11(3): 476-483. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210049
Bozhou City is a typical city in Huanghuai Plain, and agriculture is the largest source of ammonia emission. In order to further understand the agricultural ammonia emission characteristics of typical cities in Huanghuai Plain, based on the activity data and emission factors of six types of agricultural sources including livestock and poultry breeding, nitrogen fertilizer application, nitrogen-fixing plants, soil background, straw compost and human manure, the ammonia emission inventory of agricultural sources in Bozhou City from 2011 to 2018 was established to analyze the emission structure, spatial patterns, historical trends and their uncertainties. The results showed that the total ammonia emissions from agricultural sources in Bozhou City in 2018 were 27 529.19 t/a, of which livestock and poultry breeding and nitrogen fertilizer application were the two major sources of agricultural ammonia emissions, accounting for 68.81% and 16.85%, respectively. The emissions were concentrated in Lixin County and Qiaocheng District, accounting for 28.9% and 27.8% of the total emissions of Bozhou City, respectively. The total agricultural ammonia emissions of Bozhou City rose slightly from 35 097.97 t/a in 2011 to 38 441.13 t/a in 2014; from 2015 to 2017, there was little change; and in 2018, it decreased to 27 529.19 t/a. Among various types of sources, ammonia emissions of straw compost and soil background showed a slight increase from 2011 to 2018, while livestock and poultry breeding, nitrogen fertilizer application, nitrogen-fixing plants, and human manure showed a decreasing trend. In addition, the uncertainty range of Bozhou agricultural ammonia emission inventory from 2011 to 2018 was between -22% and 26%, which was small.
Treatment effect of rural domestic sewage by aerated biological purification pond: taking Shangcheng County in southern Henan Province as an example
WANG Xingzhi, NIAN Yuegang, ZHANG Xianqi, YAN Haihong, GUO Xiaoya, YIN Qin, LIANG Yu
2021, 11(3): 484-492. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210042
In order to improve the stability of rural domestic sewage treatment and meet the demand of ecological landscape construction, aeration biological purification pond (ABPP) technology was put forward which is the conbined mechnism of high-adjusted ablity of stabilization pond technology, suitable for low concentration organic wastewater treatment of contact oxidation method and steady state of grass shallow lakes. The new process was applied to treat rural domestic sewage in 11 towns and districts of Shangcheng County in southern Henan Province, and the operating effects of 4 typical cases for one year were summarized. The results showed that the pollutant concentration of domestic sewage was low and fluctuated greatly due to the confluence drainage system, the rainy climate characteristics in southern Henan and the habits of residents using septic tank sewage to irrigate vegetable gardens. The ABPP had the long hydraulic retention time and completely mixed-sewage, forming bacteria-grass coexisted water steady state system which is suitable to purify the low concentration pullution. Chemical oxygen demand (CODCr), ammonia (NH3-N), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) in the effluent reach Level 1 standard of the Rural Sewage Treatment Facilities of Water Pollutant Discharge Standard (DB41/1820-2019), CODCr and NH3-N meet Grade Ⅳ or above quality standard of the Environmental Quality Standards for Surface Water (GB 3838-2002). ABPP is the appropriate process to treat rural domestic sewage with low pollutants, and benefit to improve the rural water ecological landscape.
Comparison of the effect of two kinds of ecological grass swales on road runoff purification
ZHANG Ruibin()
2021, 11(3): 493-498. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20200181
The biological packing of aluminum sludge was combined with the stepped ecological grass swale to construct stepped ecological grass swale system, and the effects of stepped ecological grass swale and conventional grass swale on the road runoff purification were compared. The results showed that effect of stepped ecological grass swale on the runoff volume reduction was better than that of conventional grass swale in the two rainfall events, and the reduction rate of runoff volume was 63.04% and 55.21%, respectively. The peak flow was significantly decreased, and the peak time was delayed at least 24-30 min. The stepped ecological grass swale had good water quality control and pollution load reduction effect. The concentration reduction rates of SS, CODCr, NH3-N, TN and TP in the runoff could reach 79.54%, 67.08%, 34.75%, 63.61% and 78.36%, respectively, and the reduction rates of the runoff volume could reach 92.44%, 87.83%, 74.29%, 84.45% and 90.31%, respectively. The effluent water quality was better than that of Class Ⅳ requirement of Environmental Quality Standards for Surface Water (GB 3838-2002). The stepped ecological grass swale could achieve better water quality control and pollution load reduction effect on road runoff, and thus had a good popularization and application value.
Research progress on integrated treatment technologies of rural domestic sewage
LI Yunting, SHI Yumin, WANG Jian
2021, 11(3): 499-506. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20200146
Rural domestic sewage in China has the characteristics of large amount and dispersion, so it is difficult to achieve centralized treatment. Therefore, it is very important to select rural domestic sewage treatment technologies and equipment with high treatment efficiency, good economy, strong practicability, and easy operation, maintenance and management. The processes of integrated rural domestic sewage treatment technologies were reviewed, and the applicable range, advantages and disadvantages of integrated activated sludge derived process, biofilm treatment process, membrane bioreactor (MBR) process and their combination and integration process were illustrated. The appropriate decentralized sewage treatment technology mode was analyzed, namely small integration device processing combined with centralized collection treatment. Based on the small integrated sewage treatment equipment with a treatment capacity of 5 t/d, and combined with the discharge characteristics of rural domestic sewage, the pollutant removal performance and technical and economic indexes of each treatment process were compared and analyzed. It was proposed that the integrated biological contact oxidation technology, the improved biofilm and activated sludge mixed technology and the addition of anoxic precipitation section at the end of the anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic (AAO) process were the development trends of the integrated treatment technologies of rural domestic sewage in China.
Research progress on the control of sediments in the drainage pipe
HUANG Naixian, QI Yifan, JIN Wei
2021, 11(3): 507-513. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210017
The water pollution of rivers and lakes caused by the erosion of drainage pipeline sediments in rainy days has become a dilemma for the continuous improvement of water environment quality in China. An in-depth understanding of pipeline sediments and their deposition mechanism is essential for water pollution control. The formation and characteristics of pipeline sediments, the main components of microorganisms or extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), and the effects of related properties on the anti-scouring characteristics of sediments were reviewed. The results showed that the sediments in drainage pipelines were mainly formed by the sedimentation of solid particles carried by sewage, and mainly included three types, i.e. bottom coarse-grained sediments, organic layer and biofilm. Because the sediments were rich in microorganisms and could secrete EPS, the viscosity of EPS could significantly increase the scour resistance of pipeline sediments. By controlling or degrading the polysaccharide component in the EPS of the sediments, the erosion resistance of the sediments could be reduced, which was expected to provide a new idea for controlling the sedimentation of the pipelines. At present, the domestic and foreign methods for controlling the sedimentation of pipelines were mainly through offline and online hydraulic scouring or mechanical dredging. The future research direction should focus on systematically studying the erosion resistance characteristics and influencing factors of sediments in the real drainage pipe network, and then propose more effective control technology methods.
Effects of in situ physical elution treatments of sediment on the germination and growth of Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara
HOU Xushan, YUAN Jing, YE Bibi, WU Yue, LI Guohong, WU Jingdong, CHU Zhaosheng
2021, 11(3): 514-522. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210030
In situ physical elution treatments are emerging techniques applied to remediate contaminated sediments, while the effect of sediments elution on the germination and growth of submerged macrophyte remains unclear. Two typical in situ physical elution treatments, including in situ air elution and in situ hydraulic elution, were simulated to treat the sediments enriched with organic matter to investigate the effects of physical elution on the germination and growth of Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara and the physiochemical properties of the sediments. The results indicated that the typical germination and growth index of Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara, such as the germination rate and speed of seeds, the fresh weight and the height, the leaf number and the root number all increased in post-eluted sediments. Compared to the control group, the indexes of the hydraulic elution group showed better, as the germination rate increased to 2.9 times, the plant height and the root number increased to 2.29 and 4.76 times. After the physical elution treatments on sediment, the ammonia ($NH_{4}^{-}$-N) and acid volatile sulfide (AVS) contents decreased by 34.15%-35.19% and 7.67%-44.89%, respectively, and the concentrations of organic matter was lowered by 70.04%-77.90%. The oxidation-reduction potential of surface sediments (0-5 cm) was alleviated, from strong reduction state (ORP<-350 mV) to weak reduction state (ORP:-200--100 mV). In addition, the proportion of large sediment particles (50-2 000 μm) in the sedment increased to 89.02%-92.84%, promoting the diffusion of dissolved oxygen in the overlying water into the sediments, hence facilitating the germination and growth ofVallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara. After in-situ physical elution, especially after hydraulic elution, the physical and chemical conditions of the sediments were more favorable to the germination and growth of Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara.
Analysis of factors affecting VOCs emission from oil storage processes
WANG Yanjun, JI Zhe, XIE Qiong, TENG Qi, TANG Yisu, BAI Yanying
2021, 11(3): 523-529. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20200177
In order to accurately calculate the emission of VOCs from oil storage processes, the factors affecting the emission of VOCs were quantitatively studied by using the method recommended in AP-42, a technical manual for compiling inventories of anthropogenic sources drafted by US Environment Protection Agency, taking gasoline as an example. The research showed that there were three kinds of important factors affecting VOCs emission: oil property parameters, oil storage state and meteorological parameters. Among various parameters, oil vapor pressure and the oil vapor molecular weight, tank sealing structure and tank condition, oil turnover times, ambient temperature and wind speed had great influences on VOCs emission. The VOCs emission increased exponentially with the increase of oil vapor pressure, tank diameter, oil storage height, ambient temperature and wind speed, and were linearly related to oil vapor molecular weight, oil turnover times and tank fouling factor. The influence of different sealing structures on VOCs emission could reach 2-3 times. On the basis of the research, the technical ways to control VOCs emission from the oil storage processes were put forward, in order to provide policy ideas for compilation of VOCs emission inventory and VOCs emission control in the process of oil storage, transportation and marketing in China.
Design of VOCs whole-process improvement plan of furniture manufacturing industry
DANG Chunge, GUO Yajing, ZHOU Changbo, LIN Yuchen
2021, 11(3): 530-536. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20200191
Furniture manufacturing is a key industry for VOCs control in China. The industry’s pollution prevention and control level is generally low, and the need for green upgrading is urgent. Due to the lack of technical guidance for the whole-process improvement, such as cleaner production evaluation index system and guidelines on available techniques of pollution prevention and control, current improvement activities of furniture manufacturing enterprises show a certain degree of disorder. This has resulted in a waste of human and financial resources and difficult to achieve good improvement effect. Adhering to the concept of cleaner production and the principle of scientific and accurate pollution control in accordance with the law, a whole-process improvement plan for furniture manufacturing industry was designed from five aspects, i.e. raw and auxiliary material substitution, process control, pollutants collection, pollutants treatment, and environmental management, the technical guidance documents in list type were formed. At last, several suggestions to promote the whole-process improvement of furniture manufacturing industry were put forward, so as to provide technical guidance for the improvement of enterprises’ pollution prevention and control capacity and the supervision and enforcement of environmental management departments.
Research progress of detection methods of road dust
LI Dong, CHEN Jianhua, ZHANG Yuefan, GAO Jian, ZHANG Kai, ZHU Shuang
2021, 11(3): 537-545. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20200213
Road dust is one of the main sources of urban atmospheric particles. Effective measures should be taken to control road dust for improving the quality of urban ambient air and reducing the concentration of atmospheric particles. It is a key step to determine the detection methods of road dust. And it is of great significance to improve and develop the current detection technologies of road dust emission for effectively reducing and accurately controlling urban road dust. Through empirical analysis, the main detection methods of road dust emission at home and abroad were analyzed, including dust fall method, AP-42 and TRAKER method, as well as the main monitoring methods of road environment, such as road dust micro station monitoring method and atmospheric environment mobile vehicle monitoring method. Then the principles, characteristics and applications of different road dust detection methods were summarized and compared. As a whole, the current road dust detection methods had their own advantages and limitations. It was suggested that the local governments and researchers should select appropriate detection methods in combination with the research purpose and technical cost, the standardized sampling methods should be further developed, and the corresponding environmental protection standards should be improved, so as to realize the accurate control of urban road dust.
Spatial variation of urban heat island effect in Xiong’an New Area
LIU Lixiang, YANG Kai, YE Jiahui, HAN Yongwei, MENG Xiaojie, HOU Chunfei, GAO Xinting
2021, 11(3): 546-553. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20200194
Based on the Landsat-8 satellite remote sensing images of Xiong’an New Area, including Xiong County, Rongcheng County and Anxin County, in September 2019, the land use types were divided into five types by the supervised classification method and the land use structure characteristics of Xiong’an New Area were analyzed. The radiative transfer method was used to perform land surface temperature inversion, the surface temperature was classified according to the mean standard deviation method, and the spatial change of surface temperature and the classification of heat island intensity in Xiong’an New Area were analyzed. The point of information (POI) data were used to divide the city into functional areas and analyze the influencing factors of high temperature distribution. The results showed that among the five types of land use in Xiong’an New Area, the area of cultivated land and construction land was relatively large, accounting for 56.19% and 31.81%, respectively. The distribution of the area proportion of the five types of land use in the three counties was quite different. The overall distribution characteristics of land surface temperature in Xiong’an New Area was higher in the north and lower in the south, the range of temperature was about 21 ℃, and the variation of surface temperature in Rongcheng County was large. The area of heat island intensity grade in the three counties was different, with the largest area in medium temperature area and the smallest in low temperature area. Those that had higher proportion of heat island intensity grade area had the higher proportion of building area. The average surface temperature in different temperature areas of heat island intensity had a significant linear positive correlation with the number of POI. Different urban functional areas had different effects on surface temperature, the surface temperature of functional areas with large human activities was high, with the area of higher temperature being around the construction land, the area with lower temperature around water body, and the area with normal temperature being cultivated land and forest land.
Evaluation of microplastics pollution in surface sediments of Beitang Drainage River in Tianjin City based on uncertainty
ZHAO Yanmin, MA Yingqun, WEN Quan, SHI Yao, CHI Minghui, YANG Chenchen, QIN Yanwen
2021, 11(3): 554-561. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20200098
As a new type of pollutant, microplastics (<5 mm in particle size) has attracted more and more attention in recent years. The abundance and distribution of microplastics in the sediments of six sampling sites along Beitang Drainage River, an important drainage river in northern Tianjin, were examined. The pollution status of microplastics was evaluated by constructing a fuzzy evaluation model of microplastics pollution based on triangular fuzzy numbers. The results showed that the abundance of the microplastics in the sediments of Beitang Drainage River ranged from (183.50±11.33) to (238.00±12.93) ind/kg (based on the dry weight of sediment). Three types of microplastics, namely fragment, fiber and film were mainly separated from the sediment. Fragment accounted for the largest proportion (44.92%-56.40%), fiber accounted for the second (35.35%-44.52%), and film accounted for the smallest. The studies of the particle size of microplastics also indicated that the microplastics with particle size less than 1 mm and 1-2 mm accounted for over 80% of the total microparticles in each sampling site, while the microplastics with particle size more than 2 mm accounted for a small proportion. The microplastics in the sediments of Beitang Drainage River was in moderate and severe pollution level. Compared with the results of the deterministic evaluation results, the fuzzy assessment result could give the possible value range of pollution index and the subordinate credibility level, which could effectively reduce the uncertainty caused by different spatial heterogeneity of sediment, analysis methods and analysts, and better characterize the pollution status and the spatial distribution differences of the microplastics in the sediment of the studied region, which was more objective and comprehensive.
Advances in research on the occurrence, source and risk assessment of antibiotics
CHEN Yu, XU Yanan, PANG Yan
2021, 11(3): 562-570. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20200180
The current use of antibiotics at home and abroad, the pollution in the water environment, the main sources and the risk assessment methods of antibiotics were summarized based on a literature review of the studies on antibiotics by different scholars in the past ten years. The results showed that the types of antibiotics in the water environment mainly included quinolones, sulfonamides, macrolides and tetracyclines. Compared with foreign countries, the types of antibiotics detected in rivers and lakes in China were more abundant, and the pollution situation was more complicated. There were certain differences in the main pollution types of antibiotics in inland and coastal water. The main sources of antibiotics in the water environment were urban sewage plant effluent, medical wastewater, livestock and poultry breeding and aquaculture wastewater. At present, a corresponding evaluation index system had been established for single pollution sources and mixed pollution sources in water bodies and sediments, but the toxicological data, evaluation methods and influencing factors urgently needed to be improved. It was recommended to strengthen the source control of antibiotics, enhance the wastewater treatment plant process and improve the risk assessment system.
Research progress on treatment technology of tetracycline antibiotics pollution in the environment
ZHAN Haiyin, ZHOU Qixing
2021, 11(3): 571-581. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20200154
Abstract(1795) PDF(1118KB)(301)
Tetracycline antibiotics are a kind of low-cost broad-spectrum antibiotics, which are widely used in clinical medicine, animal husbandry, aquaculture and other fields. The excessive use and improper handling of tetracycline antibiotics have caused them to be discharged into water, soil and other environments. They remain and spread in the environment, posing a potential threat to ecology and human health. Therefore, their removal in the environment is particularly important. The sources of tetracycline antibiotics in the environment and their behavior in the environment were introduced, and the treatment technologies of these antibiotics in environmental media were outlined. The results showed that by the currently engineered wastewater treatment technologies, the wastewater could reach Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB 8978-1996), but there were few special designs for the removal of tetracyclines and other types of antibiotics, resulting in residual antibiotics in the effluent after treatment, and thus brought about the risk of water environmental pollution. The removal of tetracyclines in soil was currently mostly stayed at the laboratory level, and the remediation technology that could be directly applied to antibiotic-contaminated soil by engineering required further study. Finally, the future researches on the treatment technology of tetracycline antibiotics was prospected, aiming to provide a scientific basis for the removal and treatment of tetracycline antibiotic pollution in the environment.
Application status and prospects of solid waste disposal and resource utilization technology in natural gas extraction drilling
HAN Guimei, ZHOU Changbo, FANG Gang, ZHAO Chuanming, DANG Chunge, LI Zixiu, GUO Yajing, LIN Yuchen
2021, 11(3): 582-590. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20200161
The natural gas drilling process generates massive drilling solid waste that contains petroleum hydrocarbon, inorganic salt and refractory organic compounds, etc., which are either poisonous or harmful species. The pH of the water-based drilling solid waste is generally 9-10, which exceeds the technical requirement of Category Ⅰ field storage and backfill of general industrial solid waste stipulated by Standard for Pollution Control on the Storage and Disposal for General Industrial Solid Wastes (GB 18599-2001). The petroleum hydrocarbon content is 4 690-15 500 mg/kg, exceeding the requirements of soil pollution risk screening value of Class Ⅱ land of Soil Environmental Quality Risk Control Standard for Soil Contamination of Development Land(Trial) (GB 36600-2018). The use of oil-based drilling fluid in some gas fields in Sichuan, Chongqing, Xinjiang, etc., due to the complexity of terrain, may lead to over standard concentrations of heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and petroleum hydrocarbons. The drilling solid waste is mainly composed of SiO2, CaO, Al2O3, with the total content of three components can reach 72%, which contains the necessary chemical compositions for the preparation of building materials. Based on the pollution characteristics and chemical components of drilling solid waste, the solid waste disposal technologies (including curing stabilization, biodegradation, chemical leaching, downhole reinjection, source reduction technology, etc.) were systematically summarized and analyzed both at home and aboard. Further discussion was made on the characteristics and treatment effect of the technologies, as well as the research progress of resource utilization such as brick-making, wellsite roadway paving, modifier, etc. It was proposed that various treatment and disposal technologies can effectively reduce the pollutants in the drilling solid waste, and diversified resource utilization approaches can improve the utilization rate of solid waste, which tends to be prospective. It was suggested that separate treatment should performed for the drilling solid waste at the source, and multiple treatment technologies should be carried out in the process. At the end of pipe, the technologies of subgrade soil resource utilization should be explored to consume the drilling solid waste to the maximum extent, combined with the demand of gas field development area.
Comprehensive evaluation of wastewater treatment technology in pharmaceutical industry based on AHP-FCE model
LI Juan, CHENG Luyao, ZENG Ping, WANG Yan, HAN Lu, ZHAO Xiumei
2021, 11(3): 591-598. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20200151
Pharmaceutical wastewater is difficult to be treated because of its complex water quality, high COD, high content of toxic and harmful substances, poor biodegradability and high chrominance. There are many kinds of pharmaceutical wastewater treatment technologies, and each technology has its own characteristics. In order to correctly select the appropriate pharmaceutical wastewater treatment technologies, the evaluation index system and the evaluation standard of the wastewater treatment technologies in pharmaceutical industry were established. The analytic hierarchy process and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (AHP-FCE) method was used to comprehensively evaluate 13 pharmaceutical wastewater treatment technologies supported by National Major Scientific and Technological Special Projects for Water Pollution Control and Management (Major Water Project). The results showed that UASB-MBR was a more feasible pharmaceutical wastewater treatment technology among the 13 technologies, followed by two-stage separation internal circulation anaerobic reactor and ABR-CASS biological enhancement technology. The results could provide strong support for pharmaceutical enterprises to choose appropriate wastewater treatment technologies.
Analysis of research hotspots and trends of China’s industrial transfer based on CiteSpace
LI Siqi, WU Na, WU Jia, FENG Qiang, FU Zeqiang, YANG Bin
2021, 11(3): 599-608. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20200182
Industrial transfer is an important way to promote regional coordinated development. With the scale enlargement of domestic industrial transfer gradually, the research on industrial transfer has important practical significance. The knowledge map structure of current papers related to industrial transfer in CNKI database was visually analyzed by using CiteSpace. The results showed that: Since 1992, China’s research on industrial transfer had experienced three stages, i.e. slow growth period, rapid growth period and bottleneck period. As a multidisciplinary field, research authors and institutions had not yet established extensive cooperative relations. The research on industrial transfer mainly focused on four themes of transfer industry, transfer model, transfer region and transfer effect, which were either qualitative description or quantitative analysis. The regional industrial transfer in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, Yangtze River economic zone and the region along “one belt, one road”, as well as the relationship between environmental regulations, environmental pollution and industrial transfer had been the focus of scholars in recent years. Future research should widen the research fields and objects, while further perfect the quantitative analysis framework system.
Evaluation of circular economy development in typical industrial parks based on material flow and energy flow analysis
XIE Lei, YAO Yang, DAN Zhigang, BI Yingying, DONG Li, QIAN Yu
2021, 11(3): 609-616. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20200209
The material flow and energy flow analysis methods were used for evaluation of circular economy development in industrial parks, and the evaluation indexes were constructed. Taking Jiangyin High-tech Industrial Park as the research object, a preliminary evaluation of circular economy of the park was carried out, and the effective paths for recycling transformation were proposed by analyzing the material flow and energy flow of each industry in the park. The results showed that the energy productivity of the park was 30 200 yuan/tce (ton of standard coal equivalent), the water resource productivity was 1 257 yuan/m3, and the land productivity was 1 175 million yuan/km2, which were relatively low. The comprehensive utilization rate of industrial solid waste was 88.59%, and the comprehensive utilization rates of resources and energy were not high. The relevance of circular economy industry chain was 87.4%, but the industrial development was uneven, and the level of centralized pollution prevention needed to be improved. These were the main factors restricting the development of circular economy in the park. Four aspects of measures, including optimization of industrial structure, improvement of circular economy industrial chain, promotion of efficient use of resources and energy, and promotion of environmental improvement, were put forward to enhance economic, resource and environmental benefits for the park.