2021 Vol. 11, No. 1

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2021, 11(1): .
Interpretation of Technical Guidelines for Delineation and Ecological Restoration of Riparian Buffers of Rivers in Zhejiang Province (Trial)
YUAN Peng, LIU Ruixia, YU Jie, YU Haiyan, LÜ Chunjian, GAO Hongjie
2021, 11(1): 1-5. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210003
Abstract(1093) PDF(9618KB)(173)
Riparian buffers are important carriers of river ecosystem. As a key work target and examination indicator, the ecological restoration of riparian buffers was proposed in the 14th Five-Year Plan of Water Ecological Environment Protection in Key Basins. In November 2020, Technical Guidelines for Delineation and Ecological Restoration of Riparian Buffers of Rivers in Zhejiang Province (Trial), the first provincial-level technical document in China, was officially released. The background and significance of the compilation of the technical guideline was interpreted, relevant national and global research status and future development trend were analyzed, and the basic principles, technical routes and main contents of the guideline were interpreted in detail, which could play a positive role in promoting the comprehensive understanding, application and promotion of the guideline.
Interpretation of Technical Guidelines for Delineation and Ecological Restoration of Ecological Buffers of Lakes and Reservoirs in Zhejiang Province (Trial)
LI Chunhua, YE Chun, LIU Fuxing, WANG Junli, YU Haiyan, WEI Weiwei, ZHENG Ye, XU Yixue
2021, 11(1): 6-13. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20210002
The restoration of ecological buffers of lakes and reservoirs is an effective measure to enhance the carrying capacity of water environment and to realize the increment of ecological expansion, which is of great significance to restore the water ecosystem and realize the harmony between human and water. It was clearly proposed to carry out the protection and ecological restoration of river and lake buffers in Action Plan for Prevention and Treatment of Water Pollution, and the ecological restoration of ecological buffers was also clearly listed as one of examination indexes in the Technical Outline of the 14th Five-Year Plan for Water Ecological Environment Protection in Key Basins. Zhejiang Province took the lead in compiling Technical Guidelines for Delineation and Ecological Restoration of Ecological Buffers of Lakes and Reservoirs in Zhejiang Province (Trial)in China. Based on the analysis of the impact of the characteristics and functions of lakes and reservoirs, the types of lakeside land uses, and the intensity of pollution sources on the buffer space needed to achieve the goal of lake protection, the methods for delineating the scope of ecological buffers of lakes and reservoirs, the width delineation by classification, and the ecological technology model of classified restoration were put forward in the guidelines, and the applicable restoration technologies of ecological buffers of lakes and reservoirs were recommended, which could provide support for guiding and standardizing the ecological restoration of different types of lake and reservoir buffers in Zhejiang Province.
Influence of urban surface on haze pollution in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region
ZHENG Linchang, REN Xiaoni, HAN Xing
2021, 11(1): 14-22. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20200075
The formation of urban haze pollution is not only related to the emission of urban air pollutants, but also may be affected by the fluctuation of urban surface, urban architectural form and even urban scale. Therefore, it is of great significance to judge the influence of urban surface elements on haze pollution for the treatment of urban haze pollution. The daily average concentration of PM2.5 are collected from 13 cities in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region from 2014 to 2017, and the regression analysis of daily average concentration of PM2.5 is carried out from the perspective of terrain slope, urban form and urban scale. The results show that: in the urban area of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei the surface fluctuation, especially the surface roughness can better explain the PM2.5 concentration, and the influence direction is negative. City size does not have a great impact on PM2.5 concentration, and the urban morphology can not explain the PM2.5 concentration.
Quantitative assessment of air quality guarantee measures: take G20 Summit in Hangzhou as an example
TANG Jiajie, CHEN Mindong, GAO Qingxian, MA Zhanyun, LI Yingxin
2021, 11(1): 23-32. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20200088
From August 24 to September 6, 2016, and 14 days before and after the implementation period of the guarantee measures of G20 Summit in Hangzhou were selected as the earlier and the later stages of the implementation of the guarantee measures, and the concentration changes of the main air pollutants in the guarantee area were analyzed. The WRF/SMOKE/CMAQ model was used to set up six scenarios of emission reduction for four types of pollution sources (industrial source, power plant source, dust source and road mobile source), and PM2.5 and O3 concentration changes were analyzed to evaluate the effect of strengthening environmental protection measures on air quality improvement. The results showed that: 1)During the whole research period, the concentrations of pollutants in Hangzhou were in the form of a wave, and the difference between the peak and valley concentrations of pollutants in most periods of the implementation of the guarantee measures was significantly smaller than that in the earlier and later periods; the average concentration of NO2 was in the later period > the earlier period > the period of the implementation of the guarantee measures, and the effect of the guarantee measures on the emission reduction of NO2 was significant; the concentration of O3 in the period of the implementation of the guarantee measures was much higher than that in the earlier and later periods. 2)Compared with the same period in 2015, the concentrations of NO2, SO2, PM2.5, CO and PM10 in the core area and strict control area decreased during the implementation of the measures in 2016, with a decrease of core area > strict control area > control area; the concentrations of NO2, PM2.5, CO and PM10 in the core area in 2016 were lower than those in 2017; the air quality in 2016 was better than that in 2015 and 2017; the impact of different control measures on air quality was different, and the variation of O3 concentration was negatively correlated with the variation of other pollutants. 3)Four types of pollution sources were simulated to implement guarantee measures; the strong implementation of control measures in the core area and strict control area made PM2.5 concentration decrease and O3 concentration increase. 4)The simulation results showed that the control measures for industrial sources could effectively reduce PM2.5 and O3 emissions in the core area and strict control area; the control measures for power plant sources or dust sources could only slightly inhibit PM2.5 and O3 emissions in the core area and control area; the emission reduction measures for road mobile sources could significantly increase O3 concentration in the core area and strict control area.
Variation characteristics and correlation analysis of air quality index and acid rain in Dongying City
DU Xiaoxiao, ZHANG Liqing, LIANG Haixia
2021, 11(1): 33-40. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20200057
Using the hourly data of air pollutants in Dongying city from 2014 to 2019 and precipitation, pH and conductivity (K) of acid rain samples from 2006 to 2019, the variation characteristics of air quality index (AQI), main pollutants IAQI and acid rain were analyzed, and the correlation between AQI and acid rain pH and K was studied. The results showed that: 1) The air quality excellent rate increased from 44.38% to 78.99% in 2014-2019, and the weather was dominated by fine weather. AQI was generally in a downward trend, the main pollutants were PM10 and PM2.5, and SO2 was in an obvious downward trend, indicating that the local treatment effect of coal and industrial sources was significant. However, O3 rising trend was prominent, which indicated that O3 may become an important source of air pollution. 2) Dongying City belonged to the light acid rain area, which was gradually changing from sulfuric acid-nitric acid type to nitric acid type and compound type. The mean value of pH was 5.41, and the mean value of K was 113.2 μS/cm. The annual mean value of pH was between 4.87 and 5.79, showing a curve upward trend, and the annual mean value of K was between 76.9 and 162.0 μS/cm, showing a general downward trend. The frequency of heavy acid rain was obviously decreasing, showing that the local air environment management had been effective. 3) Dongying City had a non acid rainy season in spring, with the lowest K in summer and the largest in winter. The maximum value of monthly precipitation pH and the higher value of K appeared in March, which was due to the inversion layer and decrease of coal sources in heating period, the dry and windy weathers, the increase of local alkaline dust, the decrease of precipitation, the slow process, the constant adsorption of pollutants in the air, leading to the increase of K, and the neutralization of precipitation pollutants and alkaline dust, leading to the increase of pH. The minimum average value of K and the smaller value of pH appeared in August, which indicated that the pH of precipitation was in direct proportion to AQI and had little relationship with precipitation in May to August when precipitation was concentrated; K was in direct proportion to AQI and was in inverse proportion to precipitation. 4) The pH of precipitation had a significant correlation with AQI of the previous day, while K had a significant correlation with AQI of the current day. 5) In 2019, AQI did not change compared with 2018, but NO2 increased compared with 2018, and K increased significantly. Weak acid and weak acid precipitation showed an upward trend from 2018 to 2019, which showed that the environmental governance needed to continue to make efforts in the region.
Research on business-oriented classification system of atmospheric environmental data resources and its application
SUN Caiping, WANG Wei, ZHANG Yaqing
2021, 11(1): 41-47. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20200116
Based on a review of the development of taxonomies and taxonomy systems, the functional changes of taxonomy in knowledge management were summarized, and the characteristics and limitations of environmental categories under different taxonomy systems were analyzed. The data classification and metadata service ideas and contents of US Federal Enterprise Architecture (FEA) Framework, which put the data sharing as the core under the background of big data development, was combed. The atmospheric environment data collection and sharing platform was used as a case to explore a business-driven scientific data classification system. The results showed that the taxonomy changed from knowledge organization to knowledge discovery and sharing, with the change of knowledge carrier and communication mode. With the principles of network information, knowledge community and government information, the taxonomy was classified from traditional subject classification to business-oriented subject taxonomy. The classification ideas and usage methods of FEA data reference model were analyzed, and based on the business analysis, the scientific, practical and balanced principles were adopted to establish a business-oriented atmospheric big data standardization system, which contained 11 major categories. A metadata registry was formulated and full-text search services developed to meet the characteristics of big data usage.
Practice and enlightenment of water ecological integrity restoration in Liaohe River Basin of Liaoning Province
YUAN Zhe, XU Qiujin, SONG Yonghui, WEI Jian, DUAN Liang, GAO Yunan, FU Jinxiang
2021, 11(1): 48-55. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20200113
The restoration of water ecological integrity in Liaohe River Basin is typical and representative for the basins with developed heavy chemical industry and water shortage in cold regions. The problems of water ecological integrity in Liaohe River Basin of Liaoning Province were analyzed from the aspects of water resources development and utilization structure, pollutant discharge, water environment capacity and changes of aquatic biodiversity. The technological research and development achievements of National Major Science and Technology Program for Water Pollution Control and Treatment (referred to as the “Water Program”) in Liaohe River Basin of Liaoning Province during the 11th and 12th Five-Year Plan periods were summarized. On this basis, the practice of water ecological base flow guarantee for physical integrity, the practice of pollution reduction for chemical integrity in the whole process of heavy pollution industry, and the practice of water ecological restoration for biological integrity were expounded. Some suggestions were put forward from the aspects of the characteristics of large river basins, the necessity and important content of water ecological integrity restoration, the way to coordinate water resources, water environment and water ecology in the treatment, and the way to carry through the three integrity restoration thoughts of physics, chemistry and biology, so as to provide experience and reference for the prevention and control of water pollution in large river basins.
Study on water balance process of Guanting Reservoir under variable conditions
QIN Zheng, LEI Kun, HUANG Guoxian, SUN Mingdong, DAI Dan, CHENG Quanguo
2021, 11(1): 56-64. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20190162
Based on the water balance equation, and combined with the daily average inflow and outflow data, the reservoir water level-area-volume curve and the daily meteorological data of Guanting Reservoir station, the numerical model of the water flow change and balance under different controlled conditions was developed. The detailed verification results of the reservoir water level and leakage flow from dam site showed that the simulation data of water level fit well with the measured data. The model was applied to calculate the water level, water surface area and water volume changes of Guanting Reservoir during 2002-2016. The flow revenue and expenditure (including precipitation, evaporation and leakage) and their proportions were analyzed in details under the original reservoir operation scheme. Different scenarios were furtherly set according to Yellow River Diversion Project and the new operation conditions of Guanting Reservior minimum ecological flow control method in recent years. According to the calculation of hydrological series conditions from 2002 to 2014, the related results showed that if there was no outer-basin water transfer, the outflow process from Guanting Reservoir could not satisfy the requirement of the minimum ecological flow discharge, meanwhile, part of the downstream river would dry up. If with 1.0×108 m3 additional input water from Wanjiazhai Reservoir in Yellow River from March to May every year and 5×107 m3water into Guanting Reservoir, the outflow of Guanting Reservoir could basically satisfy the requirement of the minimum ecological flow.
Effects of land-use change on ecosystem service values in Xiong’an New Area from 1995 to 2019
HOU Chunfei, HAN Yongwei, MENG Xiaojie, LIU Lixiang
2021, 11(1): 65-73. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20200049
In the study of sustainable development of urbanization, the spatiotemporal study of urban ecosystem service values (ESV) is of great significance. Taking Xiong’an New Area as an example, based on four remote sensing images from 1995 to 2019, the land use dynamics and the ESV of Xiong’an New Area were analyzed by using land dynamic degree and value equivalent factor. The results showed that: the cultivated land and construction land in Xiong’an New Area changed greatly from 1995 to 2019, and their proportions changed from 70.55% and 10.29% in 1995 to 62.80% and 20.30% in 2019, respectively; the proportion of woodland, waters and grassland was relatively small, but the range of changing was more dramatic. From 1995 to 2015, the ESV in the study area showed a decreasing trend, with a decrease of 1.917 billion yuan, and an increasing trend from 2015 to 2019. Spatially, the area of wetland ecosystems with higher ESV in Xiong’an New Area showed a trend of decreasing first and then gradually increasing, which was consistent with the ESV trend of Xiong’an New Area. In general, the main driving factor for the changing of ESV in Xiong’an New Area was water area. In the future urbanization process, Xiong’an New Area should pay more attention to the protection of Baiyangdian Lake and promote the coordinated and sustainable development of ecology-economic-society.
Design points for river bypass constructed wetland: take a river bypass constructed wetland in North China as an example
SONG Kaiyu, LÜ Fengjin, ZHANG Xuan, WEI Jun, ZHAO Wei, ZHOU Qiang, CHEN Hao
2021, 11(1): 74-81. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20200017
River bypass constructed wetland is one of the common engineering measures for river water environment control. The implementation of boundary conditions is complex and, although it has been widely used in China, few systematic studies have been carried out on its engineering application. Through the collection and data analysis of engineering cases, the functional positioning and design objectives, design technical route and boundary conditions of constructed wetland in river bypass were systematically sorted out, and the key points of process selection, general layout, process unit design, vertical elevation design and key single project design were analyzed. Taking a bypass constructed wetland project with a river treatment scale of 200 000 m3/d in North China as a case, and the application of design key points in the case project was expounded in detail. The case wetland adopted the combination treatment technology of facultative pond + horizontal subsurface current wetland + surface flow wetland + aerobic pond, and there were 7 treatment zones. Each partition was arranged in series with internal treatment units. The river inlet could be discharged by gravity after lifted by the facultative pond. When the influent water quality in winter reached Grade Ⅳ of Environmental Quality Standards for Surface Water (GB 3838-2002), the wetland effluent could meet the design goals and objectives, and the operation cost was low (0.1 yuan/m3).
Effects of hydraulic load and flow mode on the removal of pollutants in new-type integrated vertical flow constructed wetland
LIU Li, XING Fangfang, ZHAO Wenbo, WANG Jian
2021, 11(1): 82-90. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20200024
The simulated Grade I (A) effluent based on the Standard of Discharge Standard of Pollutants for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant (GB 18918-2002) was used as the inlet of wetland. Under the intermittent operation, the effects of hydraulic load and water flow mode on the pollutants removal of the new-type integrated vertical flow constructed wetland simulation system were investigated. The effect of plant planting on pollutants removal was also investigated. The results showed that the optimal operation hydraulic load of the new-type integrated vertical flow constructed wetland simulation system was 0.36 m3/(m2·d), the best way was vertical upward flow type (UVCW), and the effluent concentrations of total phosphorus (TP) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) met Grade Ⅳ requirements of Environmental Quality Standard for Surface Water (GB 3838-2002). With plants planting of Phragmites australis and water hyacinth, the constructed wetland had a significant effect on pollutants removal. The removal rates of total nitrogen (TN), TP, ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N) and COD could reach 72.20%, 72.00%, 81.13% and 75.01%, respectively, and the effluent TP, NH4+-N and COD concentrations achieved Grade Ⅳ water quality standards. When the new-type integrated vertical flow constructed wetland was applied, it was recommended to set the hydraulic load to 0.36 m3/(m2 ·d), choose UVCW flow mode, and implement complex planting to ensure the stable operation of the wetland and high removal effect of pollutants.
Effect of immobilized bacteria and algae filler on enhanced nitrogen and phosphorus removal in constructed wetland
ZHANG Ruibin, PAN Zhuoxi, WANG Leyang, ZHANG Yan, XI Daoguo
2021, 11(1): 91-96. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20200128
In view of the poor nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiency of constructed wetland, the immobilized bacteria and the immobilized bacteria and algae were used as the substrate to investigate the effects of the control (gravel) group,the immobilized bacteria group and the immobilized bacteria and algae group on nitrogen and phosphorus removal in the constructed wetland. The results showed that the immobilized bacteria group and the immobilized bacteria and algae group enhanced the load resistance and stability of the wetland system, and the pollutants in the water body could be quickly removed in the early stage of wetland operation. The immobilized bacteria and algae group, the immobilized bacteria group and the gravel group began to stabilize the effluent on the 40th, 48th and 56th day of wetland operation, respectively. The stability of effluent quality of the immobilized bacteria group and the immobilized bacteria and algae group was better than that of the gravel group, reaching Level 1 A standard of Discharge Standard of Pollutants for Urban Sewage Treatment Plants (GB 18918-2002). The algae powder and its adsorbed organic matter could be used as supplementary carbon source to enhance nitrogen removal. The effluent concentrations of NH3-N、TP and CODCr from the immobilized bacteria and algae group reached Class Ⅴ standard of Environmental Quality Standards for Surface Water (GB 3838-2002). The removal rates of CODCr, NH3-N, TN and TP were 58.10%, 81.47%, 86.70% and 85.54%, respectively.
Treatment of inland pond aquaculture tail water by multi-stage combined process of “three ponds and two dams”
LIU Mei, YUAN Julin, NI Meng, LIAN Qingping, GUO Aihuan
2021, 11(1): 97-106. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20200153
According to the distribution and pollution characteristics of aquaculture wastewater from inland fresh ponds, the multistage combined treatment system of “sedimentation pond+filter dam+aeration pond+filter dam+ecological pond” (referred to as “three ponds and two dams”) was adopted to purify the aquaculture wastewater. The removal effect of the combined process on the main pollutant indexes of wastewater and the removal contribution rate of each unit along the way of three demonstration sites corresponding to low pollution, medium pollution and high pollution types were investigated. The project construction investment and operation cost were analyzed. The results showed that the average removal rates of TSS, CODMn, TN, TP and NH4+-N in the three demonstration sites ranged from 48.1% to 60.7%, 50.4% to 60.7%, 52.5% to 59.2%, 64.2% to 71.5% and 72.1% to 80.5%, respectively. Water quality at the outlets was improved obviously and met the standard of Requirement for Water Discharge from Freshwater Aquaculture Pond (SC/T 9101-2007) stably. The treatment effects of combined system in summer were the best, followed by spring and autumn. Even in winter, the system could still run normally and stably to ensure that the water quality reach the standard. Sedimentation pond had the best purifying effects on TSS with the removal rate of 21.3%. Aeration pond had the largest contribution to CODMn and NH4+-N with the removal rates of 18.7% and 28.7%, respectively. Ecological pond had the largest contribution to TN and TP removal rates with 16.3% and 28.8%, respectively. The filter dam had good removal effect on all water quality indexes, and the removal range was 7.5% to 11.8%. The construction cost of the aquaculture pond tail water projects were 13 700, 27 750 and 13 040 yuan/hm2 for the three demonstration sites. The annual operating and maintenance costs allocating to the ponds every year were 3 250, 3 870 and 4 000 yuan/hm2, respectively.
A bibliometric analysis of the frontier progress in wetland construction
ZHANG Yuan, ZHANG Yanjie, ZHU Jing, WU Yihong
2021, 11(1): 107-113. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20200050
Wetland construction is a crucial area dominating the final structure, function and efficiency of the constructed wetlands. However, there is little literature in China to sort out and analyze its development status and future trends. The bibliometric analysis method and the Web of Science core database as the data source were used to organize and analyze 1 620 documents in the field of international wetland construction from 2005 to 2019. The study showed that in the field of wetland construction, China was the country with the highest number of published papers, the institution with the most published papers was Chinese Academy of Sciences, and 5 of the top 10 institutions with highest published papers were Chinese institutions. However, Chinese scientific research institutions were not at the center of international scientific research cooperation. Zhang Y, a scholar from China, had the highest number of published papers in this field, but the highest total citations were Ahn C from the United States. The journals with the most published papers in this field included Ecological Engineering and Science of the Total Environment. Additionally, on the research hotspots, wetland ecology and wetland management were the key research objects in this field.
Research progress of the application of non-thermal plasma to algae removal
LI Junnan, YANG Suwen, JIN Weidong, YANG Zhiying, YAN Yuhong
2021, 11(1): 114-121. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20200121
The non-thermal plasma technology has the characteristics of simple operation, high treatment efficiency, low energy consumption and environmental friendliness, and has been studied and applied in algae removal in water. The mechanisms of non-thermal plasma for algae removal, different types of reactors and their application and effects of algae removal were systematically summarized based on summarizing and collating the relevant literature at home and abroad. Furthermore, the factors affecting the algae removal efficiency of non-thermal plasma technology were reviewed, and the advantages of this technology applied to algae removal were analyzed. In addition, some prospects for the development and application of this technology in algae removal were made in order to provide reference for the engineering application of non-thermal plasma on algae removal.
Evaluation method of ecotoxicity data quality for deriving water quality criteriain China
HUANG Yi, YAN Zhenguang, ZHANG Tianxu, ZHENG Xin
2021, 11(1): 122-128. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20200026
Water quality criteria (WQC) is the scientific basis for formulating water quality standards (WQS), and the ecotoxicological data is the basis of WQC. Therefore, the quality of ecotoxicological data must be evaluated before deriving WQC. Using the data quality evaluation methods of the United States, the European Union, Australia and New Zealand for reference, the method of ecotoxicological data quality assessment for WQC establishment in China was proposed. The method was established from the following 5 aspects, 25 items with a total score of 100, including data sources, chemical substances, test organisms, experimental process and experimental results. For each kind of ecotoxicological data, the quality was graded according to its final score. The principles of quality assessment were as follows: score≥80, high quality data; 60≤score<80, acceptable data;score<60, unacceptable data. In the process of evaluation, when the individual evaluation result was invalid, the evaluation process must be terminated directly. The evaluation method of ecotoxicological data developed in this study would further enriched the technical method of WQC establishment in China.
Progress in research on river nutrient criteria development methods
HUANG Weihui, MA Chunzi, HE Zhuoshi, ZHANG Hanxiao, HUO Shouliang
2021, 11(1): 129-134. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20200037
River nutrient criteria is an important basis for the comprehensive evaluation of river nutrient status and the revision of surface water standards. The latest research progress of the methods for the formulation of river nutrient criteria at home and abroad was systematically discussed, and the procedures and candidate indicators for the formulation of river nutrient criteria put forward. The statistical analysis method, model inference method and pressure-response model method for the determination of river nutrient criteria were emphasized, and the development trend of the method for the determination of river nutrient criteria prospected. Through combing and comparison, it was proposed that among the formulation methods of river nutrient criteria, the reference section method in the statistical analysis could best reflect the natural state of the river, but the use of historical river data and the data of the river with less human interference would lead to the over-protection of the river, and the neglect of the impact of natural factors such as climate change would also lead to the under-protection of the river. The model inference method needed a large amount of data to construct a functional model representing the characteristics of water body, and its complexity made the application of this method more difficult. At present, the pressure-response model was a hot topic for scholars at home and abroad, but the response mechanism between nutrient concentration in rivers and biogenic and special sensitive populations under the influence of human activities and climate change still needed to be deeply explored, and the close combination of nutrient criteria formulation and river management needs should be strengthened.
Comparison study of organics removal characteristics by three kinds of integrated ozone-BAF processes treating biochemical effluent of petrochemical wastewater
FU Liya, WU Changyong, ZHOU Jian, LUO Jin, ZUO Jian’e, ZHOU Yuexi
2021, 11(1): 135-143. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20200061
The integrated ozone-biological aerated filter (BAF) is a potential energy-saving process for advanced treatment of industrial wastewater treatment by ozonation. However, there were few reports on the influences of the ozonation technology on the treatment effects of integrated ozone-BAF. The treatment effect of integrated ozone-BAF process on the biochemical effluent of petrochemical wastewater was studied under three kinds of ozonation methods: ozone alone, ozone/H2O2 and ozone/catalyst. Molecular weight distribution of effluent organic matter, three-dimensional fluorescence regional integration change, BAF microbial morphology, biomass and biological activity were helped to explore the removal characteristics of organic matter. The results showed that the average chemical oxygen demand (COD) was 55.7 mg/L at the optimal ozone dosage of 5 mg/L in single ozone-BAF technology. COD accumulated to a certain extent by the ozone/H2O2-BAF technology. The average COD achieved to 39.5 mg/L (removal rate was 39.9%) at the optimal ozone dosage of 5 mg/L in ozone/catalyst-BAF technology, and effluent COD could meet Emission Standard of Pollutants for Petroleum Chemistry Industry (GB 31571-2015) stably. In single ozone-BAF technology, organics with molecular weight ≤1 300 Da and 3 000-6 000 Da increased, the biomass decreased by 68.3%. In ozone/H2O2-BAF technology, organics with molecular weight ≤800 Da increased, and the biomass decreased by over 60.0%. In the ozone/catalyst-BAF technology, almost the organics with whole range of molecular weight were removed, the biomass reduced by 48.3%, and the bioactivity increased by 106.4%. Soluble microbial by-products and humic acids were removed significantly by the ozone/catalyst-BAF technology.
Evaluation of protein quantification methods for extracellular polymers in activated sludge
YANG Kai, ZHANG Shuo, CUI Kangping, HEI Shengqiang, LÜ Xuemin, SONG Guangqing, ZHANG Xian, HUANG Xia
2021, 11(1): 144-150. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20200046
The accurate quantification of proteins in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) is of great significance for studying the properties of activated sludge. To provide a basis for the selection of protein quantification methods in EPS, the test performance of Modified Lowry method, BCA method, Bradford method was systematically evaluated, including the test range, accuracy, precision and the anti-interference of some components (Ca2+, Mg2+,reducing sugar and humic acid) in EPS. The results indicated that the Modified Lowry method showed a good linear correlation between protein concentration and absorbance in the range of protein concentration of 1-10 and 10-100 mg/L (R2>0.99); and the test range of BCA method and Bradford method was wider. Modified Lowry method had the highest accuracy and precision, BCA method ranked the second, and Bradford method was the worst. Besides, Modified Lowry method was affected by Ca2+, Mg2+and reducing sugar; BCA method was affected by reducing sugar and humic acid; and Bradford method was affected by humic acid. Therefore, the choice of protein quantification method in EPS should be comprehensively considered from the two aspects of sample properties (protein content range, interference species and concentration) and test method performance (test range, accuracy, precision and anti-interference).
Experimental study on phosphorus form of sludge and response surface method to optimize phosphorus release
WANG Fangzhou, LIU Xueyu, XIAO Shuhu, YAN Bingfei, SONG Yonghui
2021, 11(1): 151-157. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20200060
Based on the characteristics of the process flow of the sewage treatment plant, different process sections were selected to determine the phosphorus concentration in order to determine the optimal range of phosphorus release conditions from sludge. The results showed that the phosphorus content in the sludge was the highest, accounting for 68% of the phosphorus in the sewage plant. The total phosphorus (TP) concentration in the sludge was 47.12 mg/g, and inorganic phosphorus was the main component, accounting for 89.3% of the TP. Aiming at the composition characteristics of phosphorus in sludge, the experiment adopted low temperature pyrolysis coupled acid hydrolysis and addition of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) to release phosphorus in sludge. The process was optimized according to Box-Behnken Design experiments and response surface methodology. The single effect and interaction effects of pH values (X1), reaction temperature (X2) and EDTA concentration (X3) were investigated, and the regression equation was established. The results showed that the regression equation had a good fit (R2= 0.987 0). The linear effect of X1 and the curve effect of X12 on the phosphorus release rate were extremely significant. Combined with economy and practicality, the optimal process conditions for selecting phosphorus release from sludge were: pH was 4, reaction temperature was 53 ℃, EDTA concentration was 14.5 mmol/L, and the phosphorus release rate of the verification experiment was 62.85%, and the forecast value of regression equation was 62.91%. The simulated values agreed well with the predicted values, which could provide technical support for the sludge phosphorus release process and subsequent phosphorus recovery technology applications.
Wastewater pollution source apportionment of electrolytic manganese industry based on the equivalent pollution load method
SHI Feifei, DAN Zhigang, YAO Yang, DAN Wenling, YUAN Yin, XIE Lei
2021, 11(1): 158-162. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20200042
The wastewater with complicated compositions generated by the electrolytic manganese industry was from many processes, and the systematic quantitative data of the water pollution load in each process was relatively lacking. Through research on technical data that accounted for 85% of the industry’s total capacity, five source analysis processes including leaching oxidation, pressure filtration, electrolysis and subsequent sections, leachate from residue field and initial rainwater were determined, and four analytical factors including chemical oxygen demand, ammonia nitrogen, total chromium, and total manganese were also determined. The analysis results of pollution source apportionment provided important basic data and reference for formulating industrial environmental management policy standards, guiding the direction of technology research and development, and leading technology promotion and application.The equivalent pollution load source analysis results indicated that the equivalent pollution load of the wastewater from the production of one ton of manganese was 6 119.7. Total manganese, ammonia nitrogen and total chromium were the main pollutants, and the cumulative load ratio was 99.7%. The electrolysis and subsequent sections, leachate from residue field, and pressure filtration, with the equivalent pollution load ratio being 47.2%, 27.8% and 22.6%, respectively, were the key processes of the industrial environmental management. Meanwhile, it was discovered that the leachate from residue field had a higher pollution load, which needed urgent attention. The processes with the greatest water pollution load and emission reduction potential were electrolysis and subsequent sections, which were also the key processes of technology research and development, and the cleaner production technologies developed for these processes could significantly reduce the equivalent pollution load.
Research progress of aerobic granular membrane bio-reactor technologies for wastewater treatment
HE Hang, ZHAO Jian, SUN Ning, LI Jiang
2021, 11(1): 163-172. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20190208
With the introduction of stricter pollutant discharge standards, the development of compact, efficient and less energy-consuming wastewater treatment technologies has become an urgent need in the field of water treatment. The present status of aerobic granular membrane bioreactor (AGMBR) technology in water treatment at home and abroad in recent years was reviewed. The compositions and pollutant removal performances of various AGMBR reaction systems were briefly introduced. The characteristics of membrane fouling of aerobic particles in membrane biofilm were systematically summarized, and AGMBR method was superior to the traditional MBR method in reducing membrane fouling, but it also had the problem of irreversible pollution. The factors affecting the stability of aerobic particles were analyzed from four aspects, i.e. substrate and feeding mode, quorum sensing, extracellular polymer substances and metal ions. The application prospect of AGMBR method was also prospected.
Research and application of amended bioretention tank in rainwater treatment of sponge city
RAN Yang, FU Zhengrong, MA Manying, YU Dongsheng, ZHAN Lingmei, LIAO Hui, WEI Chengchen
2021, 11(1): 173-180. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20200094
Bioretention tank was a kind of treatment facility under the low impact development (LID) technology of urban rainwater. It was widely used at home and abroad because of its good removal effect of pollutant, uncomplicated operating conditions and low investment cost. Based on the analysis of the research dynamics of the amended bioretention tank at home and abroad, it was proposed that the amended bioretention tank could improve the removal efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus pollutants while maintaining the removal efficiency of suspended particulates, heavy metals/metalloid, pathogens and oils of the traditional bioretention tank, after the improvement of the biological retention tank in the aspects of filler matrix, anaerobic environment, structure optimization, effective water storage depth, infiltration rate and hydraulic flow direction. The basic principles and typical characteristics of the amended bioretention tank for the treatment of pollutants in urban rainwater were summarized, and the design and application scope of it for the treatment of rainwater were concluded. The future research and development directions were also prospected, in order to provide reference for the construction of sponge city infrastructure projects and the urban reconstruction of old areas.
Thoughts on energy transformation of resource-based cities: taking Taiyuan City as an example
ZHANG Baoliu, WANG Jian, LÜ Lianhong, XIA Jie, YANG Zhanhong, LUO Hong
2021, 11(1): 181-186. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20200093
The energy transformation path of resource-based cities at home and abroad was sorted out and the experience of energy development summarized; and promoting inclusive energy development guided by market forces. Taking Taiyuan City as an example, through relevant data analysis, it was found that Taiyuan City presented the characteristics and problems like single supply structure, long-term dependence on coal for industrial development, low degree of clean coal use, and insufficient development of renewable energy. Based on China’s conditions and energy development guiding ideology, and combined with the experience of energy transformation, the suggestions for the energy transformation development of Taiyuan City were put forward, so as to provide methods and references for the energy structure adjustment and energy transformation of other resource-based cities. The suggestions mainly included reducing the proportion of coal consumption and promoting clean utilization of coal; controlling industrial energy consumption and improving the comprehensive utilization of industrial energy and resources; promoting distributed energy development and increasing the proportion of renewable energy consumption; steadily promoting the treatment of bulk coal and ensuring the supply of alternative energy.
Analysis on the relationship between environmental protection investment and changes in resources and environment
WU Na, WANG Yanhua, WU Jia, FENG Qiang, LI Siqi, FU Zeqiang
2021, 11(1): 187-193. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20200099
At present, in order to achieve the sustainable development of ecological civilization, China continues to strengthen ecological environmental protection, while the investment intensity in environmental protection is increasing continuously. However, the relationship between environmental protection investment and changes in Chinas resources and environment should be elaborated. An index system that characterized the general changes of resource and environment was established, the comprehensive index of resource and environment changes calculated, and the correlation and coupling relationship between the environmental protection investment and the comprehensive index analyzed. The results indicated that the comprehensive index of China showed the trend of first increasing then decreasing from 2006 to 2017, and maintained a significant positive correlation with the level of environmental protection investment. In view of the gap between Chinas current level of environmental protection investment and that of the developed countries, the continuous improvement of resources and environment in the future still required an increase in environmental protection investment. From 2006 to 2017, the coupling degree of Chinas environmental protection investment proportion and the comprehensive index of resource and environment changes showed a rising trend. It was in the antagonism phase from 2006 to 2013, and the running-in phase from 2014 to 2017. In general, the coupling coordination degree of the two showed fluctuated upward trend. It was in the antagonizing and middle coordination stage from 2006 to 2013, and the running-in and high coordination stage from 2014 to 2017. At the same time, there was a positive correlation between economic growth and environmental protection investment. It was suggested that with the economic growth in China, the investment in environmental protection should be increased accordingly.
Research on water resources carrying capacity of shale gas development area based on GA-BP neural network
ZUO Zhaohui, LI Shaokang, YANG Jinjin, YUAN Ying, LI Xiang
2021, 11(1): 194-201. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20200081
Taking Weiyuan County in Southwest China as an example, the evaluation system and grading standard of water resources carrying capacity were constructed from five aspects, i.e. society, economy, ecology, water resources and shale gas development, and the genetic algorithm (GA) was used to optimize back propagation (BP) neural network. GA-BP neural network combined model was thus formed to evaluate the water resources carrying capacity status of the study area from 2014 to 2019. The results showed that the maximum relative error of the verification data calculated by GA-BP neural network was 6.5%, and the correlation coefficient between the expected output and the result was 0.995 98. With the increase in the scale of shale gas well groups, the water resources carrying capacity index of the study area had been decreased year by year. The water resources carrying capacity from 2014 to 2017 was in a bearable state, and from 2018 to 2019, it was in a weakly carrying state. The main impact indicators of the index were per capita water resources, shale gas well group scale and water consumption of 10 000 yuan of industrial added value.
Comprehensive analysis and evaluation of environmental impact of sanitary landfill in Baingoin County, Tibet
DAN Zeng, MENG Dean, ZHOU Wenwu, WANG Jing, ZHOU Peng, QIONG Dazhuoma, CHE Yuechi, HAN Zhiyong
2021, 11(1): 202-208. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20200062
The main treatment method of household garbage in Tibet autonomous region is sanitary landfill. Landfills may cause harm and pollution to the surrounding soil, water, air and other environmental elements. The soil, groundwater and air of the landfill site in Baingoin County, Tibet Autonomous Region were sampled and analyzed. The single factor pollution index, land accumulation index and potential ecological hazard index were used to evaluate the impact of the landfill on the surrounding environment. The results showed that the impact of the Baingoin County Landfill site on the surrounding air and groundwater was very small, and the four indexes detected by the air were all lower than the second-level standard value of Emission Standards for Odor Pollutants (GB 14554-93). The heavy metal concentration in groundwater was very low and the evaluation result was safe. The concentrations of heavy metals in the soil were all lower than the risk screening values of Soil Environmental Quality-Risk Control Standard for Soil Contamination of Agricultural Land (Trial) (GB 15618-2018) (pH>7.5). But with Tibetan soil element background values as evaluation criteria, evaluation results showed that the landfill surrounding soil had been polluted by different degrees. Hg had the highest pollution level, and Nemerow index was 2.9-3.5, which belonged to moderate pollution. The potential ecological harm index of Hg was 155-175, reaching the relatively heavy-heavy pollution level. On the whole, the soil around the landfill was in the level of medium potential ecological harm.