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天津市农田土壤重金属来源及健康风险评价

朱玲 刘琨 李兰兰 苑红丹 赵美姿 李炜

朱玲,刘琨,李兰兰,等.天津市农田土壤重金属来源及健康风险评价[J].环境工程技术学报,xxxx,x(x): x-xx doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20230770
引用本文: 朱玲,刘琨,李兰兰,等.天津市农田土壤重金属来源及健康风险评价[J].环境工程技术学报,xxxx,x(x): x-xx doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20230770
ZHU L,LIU K,LI L L,et al.Source and health risk assessment of heavy metals in farmland soil of Tianjin City[J].Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology,xxxx,x(x): x-xx doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20230770
Citation: ZHU L,LIU K,LI L L,et al.Source and health risk assessment of heavy metals in farmland soil of Tianjin City[J].Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology,xxxx,x(x): x-xx doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20230770

天津市农田土壤重金属来源及健康风险评价

doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20230770
基金项目: 国家自然科学金项目(42371485)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    朱玲(1982—),女,本科,主要从事县域生态环境监测研究,mehelene@126.com

    通讯作者:

    刘琨(1990—),男,硕士研究生,主要从事农村与生态监测研究,740157108@qq.com

  • 中图分类号: X825

Source and health risk assessment of heavy metals in farmland soil of Tianjin City

  • 摘要:

    为揭示城市周边蔬菜粮食种植区土壤重金属风险,同时针对目前研究中缺少经手-口摄入、呼吸途径和皮肤接触暴露途径引起的人体健康风险及估算不同来源下量化的成人和儿童的健康风险情况,以天津市西青区农田表层土壤为研究对象,分析了Cr、Cu、Ni、Pb、Zn、As、Hg、Cd共8种重金属的浓度,采用主成分分析(PCA)、正定矩阵分解(PMF)、健康风险评价模型(PMF-HRA)分别评价土壤重金属污染程度、来源及健康风险,厘定主要的重金属污染物及其暴露途径。结果表明:天津市农用地土壤8种重金属中Cd、Hg污染最为严重,均值分别超出背景值151.9%、324.1%,约有15%的点位处于中度至重度污染等级。造成研究区土壤重金属污染的来源主要包括自然成土过程、农业生产和交通运输、燃煤、农药使用。Cd(农药源)和Hg(燃煤源)是研究区农用地土壤污染的重要元素。在摄食农作物、手口摄入和皮肤接触3种暴露途径下,均不存在显著的非致癌健康风险。自然源的总致癌风险指数(TCR)最高,Cr元素是源贡献中儿童非致癌风险总指数(HI)和儿童TCR的主要贡献者;燃煤源中Hg对HI的贡献最大,Cu和Zn对HI的贡献来自于农药和交通混合源。以上重金属元素的贡献均与周围居民的工业、农业及交通活动存在密切的联系,应引起重视。

     

  • 图  1  研究区概况及采样点分布

    Figure  1.  Sketch map and sampling sites in the study area

    图  2  研究区土壤重金属PMF分析污染源成分谱

    Figure  2.  Factor profiles and source contributions of eight heavy metals based on PMF in the study area

    图  3  PMF模型下土壤重金属点源标准化贡献率

    Figure  3.  Standardization contribution rate of soil heavy metal point source based on PMF model

    图  4  研究区8种重金属浓度空间分布

    Figure  4.  Spatial distribution of eight heavy metals in the surface soil of the study area

    表  1  重金属健康风险暴露参数取值

    Table  1.   Health risk exposure parameters of heavy metals

    符号参数成人参考值儿童参考值
    EF暴露频率/(d/a)300300
    ED暴露年限/a306
    AT平均暴露时间/d非致癌365×ED非致癌365×ED
    BW平均体重/kg6015
    Ring手口摄入/(mg/d)100200
    Rinh呼吸频率/(m3/d)205
    PEF土壤排放系数/(m3/kg)1.36×1091.36×109
    AF皮肤黏着度/〔mg/(cm2·d)〕0.070.2
    SA暴露皮肤表面积/cm24 3501 660
    ABS皮肤吸收因子0.0010.001
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  重金属描述性统计分析结果

    Table  2.   Descriptive statistical characteristics of heavy metals

    重金属 均值/(mg/kg) 浓度/(mg/kg) 标准差/(mg/kg) 变异/% 峰度 偏度 背景值*/(mg/kg) 筛选值#/(mg/kg) 管控值#/(mg/kg)
    Cd 0.23 0.08~0.84 0.12 0.51 11.98 2.61 0.09 0.6 4
    Cr 66.8 47.3~81.2 7.94 0.12 −0.43 −0.46 98.38 250 1300
    Hg 0.212 0.011~2.29 0.34 1.62 23.38 4.32 0.05 3.4 6
    Ni 32.9 22.3~42.9 5.95 0.18 −1.16 −0.19 34.46 190 /
    Pb 26.9 16.8~50.4 6.13 0.23 2.41 1.07 20.32 170 1000
    As 10.6 6.1~15.1 2 0.19 −0.58 −0.04 11.07 25 100
    Cu 36.1 16.4~64.8 11.18 0.31 0.06 0.4 28.38 100 /
    Zn 111 55.7~246 40.37 0.36 0.84 0.91 76.27 300 /
      注:*表示采用中国环境监测总站给出的中国土壤元素背景值中天津地区背景值,来源文献[34];#表示农用地土壤污染风险管控标准(GB 15618—2018)中pH>7.5标准值。
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  土壤重金属地累积指数统计

    Table  3.   The geo-accumulation index of heavy metals in soil

    Igeo最小值最大值平均值污染等级
    Cd−0.433.281.01无污染-重度
    Cr−1.64−0.86−1.11无污染
    Hg−1.843.090.41无污染-重度
    Ni−1.09−0.14−0.47无污染
    Pb−0.740.87−0.08无污染-轻微
    As−1.220.08−0.5无污染-轻微
    Cu−1.381.09−0.01无污染-轻度
    Zn−0.971.280.15无污染-轻度
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  旋转后分量载荷及贡献率

    Table  4.   Load and contribution rate of main components after being spun

    分量因子载荷方差
    贡献率/%
    总方差
    贡献率/%
    CdCrHgNiPbAsCuZn
    PC10.2060.827−0.0210.9150.6260.9030.3410.30759.159.1
    PC20.2850.4060.0520.2580.5180.2060.8880.87716.976.0
    PC30.2830.0790.9430.0700.3930.0620.0500.1999.385.3
    PC40.8880.1830.2040.1610.1130.0530.1910.2056.391.6
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  土壤重金属人体健康风险评价结果

    Table  5.   Results of human health risk assessment for soil heavy metals

    受体暴露途径CdCrHgNiPbAsCuZnHQHI(TCR)
    儿童HQing2.48×10−32.44×10−17.75×10−31.81×10−28.41×10−23.88×10−19.88×10−34.05×10−37.58×10−17.81×10−1
    HQinh4.57×10−84.71×10−42.85×10−63.22×10−71.54×10−61.74×10−51.81×10−77.44×10−84.93×10−4
    HQder4.12×10−42.03×10−24.49×10−51.11×10−49.36×10−46.44×10−45.47×10−53.36×10−52.25×10−2
    CRing1.52×10−51.74×10−41.90×10−4
    CRinh8.22×10−145.65×10−75.58×10−99.19×10−12
    CRder2.52×10−82.90×10−7
    成人HQing3.11×10−43.05×10−29.68×10−42.26×10−31.05×10−24.85×10−21.23×10−35.06×10−49.48×10−21.00×10−1
    HQinh4.57×10−84.71×10−42.85×10−63.22×10−71.54×10−61.74×10−51.81×10−77.44×10−84.93×10−4
    HQder9.45×10−54.64×10−31.03×10−52.54×10−52.15×10−41.48×10−41.25×10−57.71×10−65.16×10−3
    CRing1.89×10−62.18×10−52.43×10−5
    CRinh8.22×10−145.65×10−75.58×10−99.19×10−12
    CRder5.77×10−96.64×10−8
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  评估各污染来源重金属的非致癌与致癌风险

    Table  6.   Estimation of non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks of heavy metals from each pollution source

    风险
    类别
    重金属儿童成人
    因子1因子2因子3因子4总因素因子1因子2因子3因子4总因素
    非致癌风险Cd2.38×10−71.08×10−24.75×10−34.39×10−41.60×10−23.05×10−81.38×10−36.08×10−45.63×10−52.04×10−3
    Cr7.55×10−22.95×10−22.75×10−35.47×10−21.62×10−19.67×10−33.78×10−33.52×10−47.00×10−32.08×10−2
    Hg4.28×10−54.92×10−52.33×10−42.38×10−73.25×10−45.48×10−66.30×10−62.98×10−53.05×10−84.16×10−5
    Ni4.12×10−21.66×10−21.72×10−32.98×10−28.93×10−25.27×10−32.13×10−32.20×10−43.81×10−31.14×10−2
    Pb2.51×10−21.27×10−26.23×10−32.30×10−26.70×10−23.21×10−31.63×10−37.98×10−42.95×10−38.59×10−3
    As1.32×10−25.31×10−31.33×10−69.36×10−32.79×10−21.69×10−36.79×10−41.70×10−71.20×10−33.57×10−3
    Cu4.51×10−31.82×10−21.13×10−26.91×10−21.03×10−15.78×10−42.33×10−31.45×10−38.85×10−31.32×10−2
    Zn2.38×10−75.26×10−24.29×10−22.19×10−13.15×10−13.05×10−86.73×10−35.49×10−32.81×10−24.03×10−2
    HI1.60×10−11.46×10−16.99×10−24.05×10−17.81×10−12.04×10−21.87×10−28.95×10−35.20×10−21.00×10−1

    致癌风险
    Cd1.53×10−102.83×10−73.06×10−66.96×10−61.03×10−51.96×10−113.62×10−83.91×10−78.89×10−71.32×10−6
    Cr4.87×10−51.90×10−51.77×10−63.52×10−51.05×10−46.22×10−62.43×10−62.26×10−74.50×10−61.34×10−5
    Ni2.65×10−51.07×10−51.11×10−61.92×10−55.75×10−53.39×10−61.37×10−61.41×10−72.45×10−67.35×10−6
    As8.51×10−63.42×10−68.54×10−106.03×10−61.80×10−51.09×10−64.37×10−71.09×10−107.71×10−72.3×10−6
    TCR8.37×10−53.34×10−55.94×10−66.74×10−51.90×10−41.07×10−54.27×10−67.59×10−78.62×10−62.43×10−5
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2023-10-23
  • 录用日期:  2024-03-08
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  • 网络出版日期:  2024-04-18

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