Volume 11 Issue 4
Jul.  2021
Turn off MathJax
Article Contents
LI Hui, WANG Shulan, ZHANG Jingqiao, WANG Han, ZHANG Yulong, JIN Yan, WANG Ping. Pollution characterization and source analysis of water-soluble ions in PM2.5 of Yinchuan City[J]. Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology, 2021, 11(4): 624-630. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20200247
Citation: LI Hui, WANG Shulan, ZHANG Jingqiao, WANG Han, ZHANG Yulong, JIN Yan, WANG Ping. Pollution characterization and source analysis of water-soluble ions in PM2.5 of Yinchuan City[J]. Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology, 2021, 11(4): 624-630. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20200247

Pollution characterization and source analysis of water-soluble ions in PM2.5 of Yinchuan City

doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20200247
More Information
  • Corresponding author: WANG Shulan E-mail: wangsl@craes.org.cn
  • Received Date: 2020-10-15
  • Publish Date: 2021-07-20
  • PM2.5 samples were collected in Yinchuan City in autumn and winter of 2016 and spring and summer of 2017, and nine kinds of water-soluble ions (Na+, NH 4 + , K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, F-, Cl-, NO 3 - , SO 4 2 - ) in PM2.5 were analyzed to study the seasonal variation characteristics of water-soluble ions in PM2.5. The results showed that the sum of the average concentration of nine water-soluble ions in PM2.5 was (23.5±16.8) μg/m3, accounting for 24.1% of PM2.5. The concentration of water-soluble ions showed the characteristics of high values in autumn and winter, and low values in spring and summer. The concentration order from high to low was SO 4 2 - > NO 3 - > NH 4 + > Cl-> Ca2+> K+> Na+> Mg2+> F-. The proportion of SNA ( SO 4 2 - , NO NO 3 - an dNH 4 + ) to the total ion concentration was 80.3%, and that to PM2.5 was 20.2%. The contribution of SNA to PM2.5 on heavy pollution days was 1.7 percentage points higher than that on non-heavy pollution days, which indicated that the higher the PM2.5 concentration, the more serious the secondary pollution in the city. During the observation period, the average CE/AE of Yinchuan City was 1.4±0.8, and the average CE/AE of spring, summer, autumn and winter was 2.8±1.1, 2.0±0.4, 1.0±0.2 and 1.1±0.2, respectively, indicating that in spring and summer the contribution of basic inorganic cations to PM2.5 was greater, and the cation and anion in autumn and winter were basically balanced. The results of the principal component analysis showed that the secondary inorganic sources, industrial sources and dust sources were the main sources of water-soluble ions in PM2.5 of the city. The backward trajectory cluster analysis showed that the polluted air mass mainly came from the south during the observation period, and the particle concentration was higher. The air mass from the south was greatly influenced by the secondary pollution sources.


  • loading
  • [1]
    李培, 王新, 柴发合, 等. 我国城市大气污染控制综合管理对策[J]. 环境与可持续发展, 2011, 36(5):8-14.

    LI P, WANG X, CHAI F H, et al. Recommandation and suggestion on policy and measures for air pollution control integrated management in China[J]. Environment and Sustainable Development, 2011, 36(5):8-14.
    HUANG D S, XU J H, ZHANG S Q. Valuing the health risks of particulate air pollution in the Pearl River Delta,China[J]. Environmental Science & Policy, 2012, 15(1):38-47.
    CHENG Z, LUO L, WANG S, et al. Status and characteristics of ambient PM2.5 pollution in global megacities[J]. Environment International, 2016, 89/90:212-221.
    doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2016.02.003
    贺克斌. 大气颗粒物与区域复合污染[M]. 北京: 科学出版社, 2011:234-236.
    周登, 张帆, 吴涛涛, 等. 冬季霾天气下武汉城区大气PM2.5的化学特征[J]. 湖北农业科学, 2014, 53(2):5109-5111.
    MARIA C M, MOHAMMAD A, JAMES J S, et al. Seasonal and spatial variations of sources of fine and quasiultrafine particulate matter in neighborhoods near the Los Angeles-Long Beach harbor[J]. Atmospheric Environment, 2008, 42:7317-7328.
    doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.07.036
    JEONG C H, LEE D W, KIM E, et al. Measurement of real-time PM 2.5 mass,sulfate,and carbonaceous aerosols at the multiple monitoring sites[J]. Atmospheric Environment, 2004, 38:5247-5256.
    doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2003.12.046
    RATTIGAN O V, HOGREFE O, FELTON H D, et al. Multi-year urban and rural semi-continuous PM2.5 sulfate and nitrate measurements in New York State:evaluation and comparison with filterbased measurements[J]. Atmospheric Environment, 2006, 40:192-205.
    doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2005.12.071
    KIM H S, HUH J B, HOPKE P K, et al. Characteristics of the major chemical constituents of PM2.5 and smog events in Seoul,Korea in 2003 and 2004[J]. Atmospheric Environment, 2007, 41:6762-6770.
    doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.04.060
    DALIA S, ANAIS D, JORGE P, et al. PM2.5 chemical composition in five European Mediterranean cities:a 1-year study[J]. Atmospheric Research, 2015, 155:102-117.
    doi: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2014.12.001
    DU W J, ZHANG Y R, CHEN Y T, et al. Chemical characterization and source apportionment of PM2.5 during spring and winter in the Yangtze River Delta,China[J]. Aerosol & Air Quality Research, 2017, 17(9):2165-2180.
    LIU J, WU D, FAN S J, et al. A one-year,on-line,multi-site observational study on water-soluble inorganic ions in PM2.5 over the Pearl River Delta Region,China[J]. Science of the Total Environment, 2017, 601/602:1720-1732.
    doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.06.039
    MENG C C, WANG L T, ZHANG F F, et al. Characteristics of concentrations and water-soluble inorganic ions in PM2.5 in Handan City,Hebei Province,China[J]. Atmospheric Research, 2016, 171:133-146.
    doi: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2015.12.013
    张娟, 王炜, 赵颖. 北京市延庆区PM2.5中主要水溶性无机离子特征及来源解析[J]. 环境工程技术学报, 2020, 10(2):173-182.

    ZHANG J, WANG W, ZHAO Y. Characteristics and source analysis of water-soluble inorganic ions in PM2.5 in Yanqing District,Beijing [J]. Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology, 2020, 10(2):173-182.
    HUANG X J, ZHANG J K, LUO B, et al. Water-soluble ions in PM2.5 during spring haze and dust periods in Chengdu,China:variations,nitrate formation and potential source areas[J]. Environmental Pollution, 2018, 243:1740-1749.
    doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2018.09.126
    GUO Z Y, GUO Q J, CHEN S L, et al. Study on pollution behavior and sulfate formation during the typical haze event in Nanjing with water soluble inorganic ions and sulfur isotopes[J]. Atmospheric Research, 2019, 217:198-207.
    doi: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2018.11.009
    YANG Y J, ZHOU R, YU Y, et al. Size-resolved aerosol water-soluble ions at a regional background station of Beijing,Tianjin,and Hebei,North China[J]. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 2017, 55:146-156.
    doi: 10.1016/j.jes.2016.07.012
    刘玉兰, 梁培, 刘娟, 等. 1961—2008年银川市灰霾天气的气候特征[J]. 气象与环境学报, 2012, 28(1):55-58.

    LIU Y L, LIANG P, LIU J, et al. Climatic characteristics of haze weather from 1961 to 2008 in Yinchuan[J]. Journal of Meteorology and Environment, 2012, 28(1):55-58.
    李强, 杨建玲, 丁建军, 等. 宁夏1981—2010年大气能见度变化特征及气象因子分析[J]. 宁夏工程技术, 2018, 17(2):102-108.

    LI Q, YANG J L, DING J J, et al. Analyses on variation characteristics of atmospheric visibility and meteorological factors in Ningxia during 1981-2010[J]. Ningxia Engineering Technology, 2018, 17(2):102-108.
    刘玉兰, 缑晓辉, 严晓瑜, 等. 银川市气溶胶变化特征及其与气象条件的关系分析[J]. 环境科学与技术, 2014, 37(12):123-128.
    doi: 10.1021/es020601l

    LIU Y L, GUO X H, YAN X Y, et al. Variation of aerosol and its relationship with meteorological conditions in Yinchuan City[J]. Environmental Science & Technology, 2014, 37(12):123-128. doi: 10.1021/es020601l
    缑晓辉, 严晓瑜, 刘玉兰, 等. 银川地区大气颗粒物浓度变化特征及其与气象条件的关系[J]. 气象与环境学报, 2016, 32(6):58-68.

    GOU X H, YAN X Y, LIU Y L, et al. Characteristics of atmospheric particulate and their relationships with meteorological conditions in Yinchuan area[J]. Journal of Meteorology and Environment, 2016, 32(6):58-68.
    仇惠琼, 田娟, 任学蓉, 等. 银川市环境空气PM10和PM2.5中水溶性离子化学特征及来源分析[J]. 宁夏农林科技, 2017, 58(6):59-62.

    QIU H Q, TIAN J, REN X R, et al. Chemical characteristics and sources of water soluble ions in PM10 and PM2.5 of ambient air in Yinchuan City [J]. Ningxia Journal of Agriculture and Forestry Science and Technology, 2017, 58(6):59-62.
    罗达通, 刘湛, 王淑兰, 等. 一次强沙尘过程影响下的银川市大气污染物浓度及PM2.5化学组成变化特征[J]. 环境污染与防治, 2018, 40(8):931-936.

    LUO D T, LIU Z, WANG S L, et al. Characteristics of ambient pollutants concentrations and PM2.5 chemical compositions during a dust episode in Yinchuan [J]. Environmental Pollution & Control, 2018, 40(8):931-936.
    李慧, 张敬巧, 王涵, 等. 银川市冬季PM2.5重污染特征、来源与成因分析[J]. 环境科学研究, 2020, 33(2):289-295.

    LI H, ZHANG J Q, WANG H, et al. Pollution characteristics and source analysis of PM2.5 in Yinchuan City during winter [J]. Research of Environmental Sciences, 2020, 33(2):289-295.
    GUO S, HU M, WANG Z B, et al. Size-resolved aerosol water-soluble ionic compositions in the summer of Beijing:implication of regional secondary formation[J]. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 2010, 10(3):947-959.
    doi: 10.5194/acp-10-947-2010
    罗达通. 典型沙尘多发地银川市PM2.5污染特征及来源分析[D]. 北京:中国环境科学研究院, 2015:50-57.
    HUANG R J, ZHANG Y, BOZZETTI C, et al. High secondary aerosol contribution to particulate pollution during haze events in China[J]. Nature, 2014, 514(7521):218-222.
    doi: 10.1038/nature13774
    JIN X, CHENG M T, WEN T X, et al. The variation of water-soluble inorganic ions during a heavy pollution episode in winter,Beijing[J]. Environmental Chemistry, 2012, 31(6):783-790.
    YAO X H, CHAN C K, FANG M, et al. The water-soluble ionic composition of PM2.5 in Shanghai and Beijing,China[J]. Atmospheric Environment, 2002, 36(26):4223-4234.
    doi: 10.1016/S1352-2310(02)00342-4
    XU L L, CHEN X Q, CHEN J S, et al. Seasonal variations and chemical compositions of PM2.5 aerosol in the urban area of Fuzhou,China[J]. Atmospheric Research, 2012, 104/105:264-272.
    doi: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2011.10.017
    王琼真. 亚洲沙尘长途传输中与典型大气污染物的混合和相互作用及其对城市空气质量的影响[D]. 上海:复旦大学, 2012.
    ZHOU J, XING Z, DENG J, et al. Characterizing and sourcing ambient PM2.5 over key emission regions in China:Ⅰ.water-soluble ions and carbonaceous fractions[J]. Atmospheric Environment, 2016, 135:20-30.
    doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.03.054
    李英红. 兰州市大气细颗粒物PM2.5化学成分污染特征及来源分析[D]. 兰州:兰州大学, 2015.
    WANG Y Q, ZHANG X Y, ARIMOTO R, et al. The transport pathways and sources of PM10 pollution in Beijing during spring 2001,2002 and 2003[J]. Geophysical Research Letters, 2004, 31(14):L14110.
    doi: 10.1029/2004GL019732
    KASSOMENOS P A, VARDOULAKIS S, CHALOULAKOU A, et al. Study of PM10 and PM2.5 levels in three European cities:analysis of intra and inter urban variations[J]. Atmospheric Environment, 2014, 87:153-163.
    doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.01.004
    PARK S K, O’NEILL M S, STUNDER B J, et al. Source location of air pollution and cardiac autonomic function:trajectory cluster analysis for exposure assessment[J]. Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology, 2007, 17(5):488-497.
    WANG F, CHEN D S, CHENG S Y, et al. Identification of regional atmospheric PM10 transport pathways using HYSPLIT,MM5-CMAQ and synoptic pressure pattern analysis[J]. Environmental Modelling & Software, 2010, 25(8):927-934.
    JORBA O, PEREZ C, ROCADENBOSCH F, et al. Cluster analysis of 4-day back trajectories arriving in the Barcelona area,Spain,from 1997 to 2002[J]. Journal of Applied Meteorology, 2004, 43:887-901.
    doi: 10.1175/1520-0450(2004)043<0887:CAODBT>2.0.CO;2
    王浩, 高健, 李慧, 等. 2007—2014年北京地区PM2.5浓度变化特征[J]. 环境科学研究, 2016, 29(6):783-790.

    WANG H, GAO J, LI H, et al. Variation of PM2.5 mass concentration in Beijing area during 2007-2014 [J]. Research of Environmental Sciences, 2016, 29(6):783-790.
  • 加载中


    通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
    • 1. 

      沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

    1. 本站搜索
    2. 百度学术搜索
    3. 万方数据库搜索
    4. CNKI搜索

    Article Metrics

    Article Views(447) PDF Downloads(75) Cited by()
    Proportional views


    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint