2019 Vol. 9, No. 6

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2019, 9(6): .
Orginal Article
Variation characteristics of volatile organic compounds and deodorization effects in the landfill work zone in Shanghai
ZHANG Haijing, CHEN Haoquan, YUN Xiaoxue, XIE Bing
2019, 9(6): 623-630. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2019.08.070
The landfill in Shanghai has a large volume and the environmental risk of the garbage components is high, and it is essential to deeply study the variation characteristics and related control methods of the release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). GC-MS was used to determine the concentrations of VOCs released from landfills in different seasons, compare the effects of deodorant spraying on VOCs, and assess their environmental and health risks. The primary control pollutants of VOCs, the key pollutants of ozone generation, and the characterization of occupational exposure risks at different seasons were thus determined, so as to provide technical support for subsequent targeted control and removal of volatile organic compounds. It was found that the total concentration of VOCs was the highest in summer, mainly with alkanes, aldehydes and ketones, of which isopentane and acetone were the dominant compounds. The deodorant had a certain removal effect on the odor concentration, NH3 and H2S, but increased the varieties and concentration of VOCs, enhanced the ozone generation potential, and could raise the non-carcinogenic risk and carcinogenic risk in the landfill, both of which were within acceptable risk levels.
Study on aluminum recovery and the preparation of activated carbon from Tetra Pak waste
MA Yuhui, CAO Junrui, JIANG Tianxiang, WANG Xunliang, ZHAO Jin, XIE Baolong
2019, 9(6): 631-636. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2019.05.161
Char and aluminum were obtained by pyrolysis of Tetra Pak waste and separated from each other. The activated carbon was prepared from the char as raw materials and K2CO3 as activator. The pyrolysis characteristics of Tetra Pak waste was investigated by thermogravimetric/differential thermal analyzer coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (TG/DTA-FTIR). The N2-adsorption/desorption curves of activated carbon were determined by automatic gas adsorption instrument and the surface functional groups of activated carbon were characterized by FTIR. TG-FTIR was used to gain insight into the activation mechanism of activated carbon. Experimental results showed that the pyrolysis of paper and polyethylene and the melting of aluminum in Tetra Pak waste occurred at 365, 490 and 664 ℃, respectively. The filler CaCO3 decomposed at 720 ℃. The specific surface area and total pore volume of activated carbon were 1 215 m 2/g and 0.768 cm 3/g, respectively, and the surface functional groups of activated carbon were mainly C=O、C—O—C and aliphatic C—H. The decomposition of CaCO3 contained in char at 740 ℃ led to the formation of CO2, and pores can be created via the in-situ reduction of CO2 by char; K2CO3 began to be melted at 820 ℃, and the molten K2CO3 reacted with the carbon matrix to form CO and caused the loss of carbon. Both processes were involved in the formation of pores of activated carbon.
Harmless treatment and resource utilization of kitchen waste: development status and trend
2019, 9(6): 637-642. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2019.05.300
Abstract(1345) PDF(882KB)(623)
Kitchen waste has a high content of organic matter, which has a high reusable value. However, the improper disposal of it can easily cause various environmental problems and great harm. Based on the literature, the production and treatment status of kitchen waste in foreign countries, and the construction and treatment capacity of kitchen waste treatment facilities in China were summarized. The characteristics of the kitchen waste in China were analyzed. Three kinds of harmless treatment technologies of kitchen waste in China, including landfill and incineration, feed-based technology and biological treatment technology, were expounded. The characteristics, principles, application conditions, advantages and disadvantages of the main technologies were compared and analyzed. The main process and application status of biological treatment technology, which was the mainstream technology at present, were expounded emphatically. The technical and management problems in the utilization and harmless treatment of kitchen waste were summarized. The future development trend of kitchen waste treatment technology in China was proposed from the aspects of technology and management, such as promoting the optimization and integration of various treatment technologies, implementing the separation and transportation of waste sources, and improving the management system and policies of kitchen waste.
Study on thickness change of mud cake during electrolytic dewatering process
XING Siqi, LÜ Hang, ZHANG Wenbiao, LIU Daoguang, WU Xu
2019, 9(6): 643-648. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2019.06.180
Sludge electrolytic dehydration has its unique advantages, but at the same time accompanied by high power consumption, low space-time yield and other problems. In order to reduce energy consumption, taking the change of mud cake thickness in the process of sludge electrolytic dehydration as the starting point, the rule of thickness change and the relationship between thickness change and water content were explored through the small test device. The change of water content was more intuitive and controllable by observing thickness change in sludge electrolysis process under the action of vertical electric field. The mechanism of thickness change was briefly analyzed from the density and moisture content. The experiment proved that the thickness of mud cake changed regularly during the process of electrolysis. When the amount of mud input was less, the thickness of mud cake decreased with the decrease of water content, while when the amount of mud input was larger, the thickness of mud cake increased firstly and then decreased with the decrease of water content.
Review on odor control of livestock and poultry manure composting
XIA Xiangqin, XI Beidou, HUANG Caihong, TANG Zhurui, YUAN Wenchao
2019, 9(6): 649-657. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2019.05.142
In the process of livestock and poultry manure composting, the generation of fetor gas is high and the composition is complex. It is increasingly imperative to study the mechanism and control approaches of odor in the composting process. The generation and harm of the main odor components in the process of livestock and poultry manure composting, the influence factors of composting odor and the optimized control conditions were described. The response mechanism of key microorganisms in compost microenvironment, main odoriferous and deodorizing microorganisms and their degradation of odors were discussed. The main types, research progress, application and effects of both in situ and ectopic biological control technologies were summarized. It was suggested that the structure of functional microorganism communities and their microenvironment guarantee should have important influence on composting odor control, which could provide scientific basis and reference for the optimization of biological deodorization technology of compost.
Characterizing the effect of Fe(Ⅱ) dosage on anammox treatment process using excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy and parallel factor analysis
WANG Rong, YAO Liang, SHEN Huiyan, YU Li, LI Weihua
2019, 9(6): 658-665. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2019.09.120
The effect of ferrous ions dosage on the anaerobic ammonia was investigated. The excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy combined with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) method was used to decompose the EEM fluorescence components in the effluent samples. The relationship between the added Fe(Ⅱ) and the effluent quality of the reactor was explored. The results showed that with the increase of ferrous ions concentration from 1.84 mg/L to 5.00 mg/L, the removal rates of N H 4 + -N and N O 2 - -N increased gradually, indicating that increasing the influent ferrous ions concentration could increase the utilization rate of substrate by microorganisms. The proportion of anammox bacteria increased significantly with the increase of ferrous ions dosage; protein-like substances and fulvic acid-like substances were the main fluorophores in the effluent of anammox reactor. With the increase of ferrous ions dosage, the protein-like fluorescence of the effluents increased significantly, which implicated that the dosage of ferrous ions would promote the growth of anammox bacteria under certain conditions. Therefore, EEM fluorescence spectroscopy could reflect the effect of ferrous ions on the performance of anaerobic ammonia oxidation, which then implicate the actual operation of the reactor.
A cleaning method for anion exchange membrane fouled by sodium polyacrylate
SUN Yixin, CAO Gang, DAI Jingfu, ZHANG Chunyu, SHEN Zhiqiang, SONG Yudong, HE Xuwen, ZHOU Yuexi
2019, 9(6): 666-672. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2019.04.040
Anion exchange membrane fouling caused by sodium polyacrylate (PAS) is one of the critical factors that affect organic acid recovery from butyl acrylate wastewater through bipolar membrane electrodialysis. To address this problem, a cleaning method for PAS-fouled anion exchange membrane was developed. The cleaning efficiency of PAS-fouled membrane was evaluated by analysis of membrane resistance, transference number and X-ray photo-electronic spectroscopy (XPS). The cleaning performances with three different cleaning solutions (sodium hydroxide, sodium chloride, and hydrochloric acid) and ultrasonic enhanced cleaning indicated that hydrochloric acid had the best cleaning performance, and the ultrasound could enhance the cleaning effect of all the three solutions. The membrane resistance and transference number of the fouled anion exchange membrane could almost be restored to the same level as uncontaminated membrane when using ultrasound-enhanced cleaning process with 2.0 mol/L hydrochloric acid as cleaning solution.
Synergistic treatment of aquaculture and aquatic products processing wastewater by mixotrophic denitrification process
XU Zan, LI Wei, YI Bo, WANG Hengqi, SONG Zhenhe, LIU Jiamin, BING Xiuchen, LIANG Xiao
2019, 9(6): 673-679. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2019.04.170
The wastewater from aquaculture and aquatic products processing was complex, salty and difficult to be treated. The mixotrophic denitrification process was adopted in continuous stirred tank reactor(CSTR) for simultaneous removal of C and N. The acclimation of activated sludge at different salinity, and the effects of C/N and HRT on the synergistic/competitive transaction of autotrophic and heterotrophic denitrification in mixotrophic system were analyzed. Results showed that among the three acclimation methods of autotrophic/heterotrophic denitrification sludge, the acclimation efficiency was in the order of high salt > low salt-high salt > no salt-low salt-high salt. High salt acclimation method was beneficial for the rapid start-up of denitrification system. In the mixotrophic system, the removal load and removal rate of $NO_{2}^{-}$ reached 0.3 kg/(m 3·d) and 99.7%, respectively, with HRT of 8.0 h. The removal rates of $NO_{2}^{-}$ and COD reached 99.9% and 99.0%, respectively, with C/N of 5.0. Therefore, HRT of 8.0 h and C/N of 5.0 were more conducive to the high operating efficiency of mixotrophic denitrification system.
Study on coagulation aid efficiency and mechanism of new coagulant sodium alginate
ZHU Yuan, PAN Dingrui, WANG Yan, CHENG Shuyuan, WANG Lizhang, WANG Qian, ZHAO Shuang
2019, 9(6): 680-684. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2019.05.150
Sodium alginate (SA) was used as coagulant aid, combined with the coagulant of polyaluminium chloride (PAC), to explore its coagulation aid efficiency in the coagulation treatment of simulated surface water samples, and the effect of solution pH on coagulation efficiency investigated. Also its coagulation aid mechanism was analyzed by the measurement of Zeta potential of the coagulation effluent. Results showed that the optimal dosage of PAC and SA was 4.00 mg/L and 0.06 mg/L for simulated surface water samples. Under this condition, turbidity and UV254 removal rates reached 81.9% and 78.7%, respectively. Coagulation efficiency was influenced dramatically by solution pH, and coagulation aid effect of SA was best when pH was 7.00. In this condition, turbidity and UV254 removal rate could reach 84.0% and 83.7%, respectively. Additionally, comparative study results showed that coagulation aid efficiency of SA was equal to that of traditional coagulant aid PAM under the optimal conditions. However, SA dosage was much lower than that of PAM, which was a great cost advantage in water treatment.
Study on UV-vis spectra of dissolved organic matter from sediment interstitial water in Moguhu Lake
YAN Zongcheng, GAO Hongjie, GUO Xujing, WANG Siyu, YU Huibin, XIN Xin
2019, 9(6): 685-691. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2019.05.160
The principal component analysis and cluster analysis were used to analyze the UV-vis spectra of sediment interstitial water in Moguhu Lake, to identify the spectral components and the main control factors, and to study the composition, humification degree and spatial variation of dissolved organic matter (DOM). Seven sampling points were selected from Moguhu Lake to extract DOM samples of sediment interstitial water. The research showed that DOM contained lignin and quinine, carboxylic acid groups, polyalkyl humus and so on. There were significant differences in the two regions of the periphery and deep lake area. Through the analysis of their UV-vis spectra, six spectral indices (Sr, SUVA254, E2/E3, E2/E4, E253/E203, A2/A1) with good correlation could be deduced to characterize the molecular weight and humification level of DOM, and the results indicated that the molecular weight and humification of DOM in the peripheral area were all higher than those in the deep lake area, and showed a decreasing trend with increasing water level in the area. The results of variable cluster analysis showed that the index (E253/E203, SUVA254, A2/A1), which was positively correlated with humification level, was more representative when characterizing DOM humification. Sample cluster analysis divided the sampling points into two categories, which were consistent with the principal component analysis results. Studies showed that the degree of spatial variability could be judged to some extent by the degree of DOM humification.
Study on the influence of inflowing rivers on the water quality of Qiandao Lake: taking CODMn as an example
XIE Pei, GAO Feng, WANG Shuhang, ZHANG Bo, QIAO Fei, HE Chuan, ZHANG Le
2019, 9(6): 692-700. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2019.04.300
Based on the measured data of CODMn in the key monitoring sections of Qiandao Lake, a two-dimensional water quality model for Qiandao Lake based on the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) Model was established. The influence of inflow CODMn from upstream and the inflows around the lake on the CODMn in inner Qiandao Lake were analyzed by various scenarios. The response relation between the boundary CODMn and the CODMn at key monitoring sections in the lake was analyzed, and the influence and contribution of the upstream inflow CODMn variation on the CODMn of the key monitoring sections in the lake were quantified. Results showed that the comprehensive degradation coefficient (k)of CODMn in Qiandao Lake was 0.001 5, according to the parallel simulation of several constant degradation coefficients. There existed an obvious response relation between the upstream inflow CODMn and CODMn in the key monitoring sections. When the upstream inflow CODMn was 6 mg/L, CODMn between Weipinglinchang to Santandao sections exceeded Grade Ⅱ water quality standard of Surface Water Environmental Quality Standards (GB 3838-2002). Meanwhile, simulated results showed that the response coefficients of upstream inflows were obviously larger than that of inflows around the lake. The contribution rate of upstream inflows to CODMn in key monitoring sections of Weipinglinchang, Xiaojinshan, Santandao and Dabaqian was 82.0%-92.3%, 73.8%-88.2%, 53.8%-62.8% and 57.7%-76.4% , respectively. The impact of CODMn on key monitoring sections from upstream inflows was greater than the inflows around the lake. The results indicated that upstream inflows were the main factors affecting the CODMn of the key monitoring sections in Qiandao Lake. Therefore, the water quality monitoring and pollutant control should be strengthened for upstream inflows.
Spatial distribution and source analysis of surface sediment nutrients in Lake Dongting
LIU Jun, TIAN Xueda, WANG Linjie, YU Hui
2019, 9(6): 701-706. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2019.05.180
A total of 20 samplings site were set in Lake Dongting to measure the concentrations of TOC, TN and TP in the surface sedeiments of the lake. The spatial distribution characteristics of nutrient concentration were analysed, the organic index was used to evaluate the organic pollution level of the sediments, and the source of organic matter in sediments were analysed according to C/N ration and 15N isotope ratio(δ 15N). The results showed that the average concentrations of TOC, TN and TP in the surface sediments of Lake Dongting were 13 260, 1 046 and 368.85 mg/kg, respectively. The spatial distributions of different nutrient concentrations were significantly different, but they all showed a decreasing trend from West Lake Dongting to East Lake Dongting and South Lake Dongting. Organic nitrogen pollution existed in 20% of surface sediments of Lake Dongting, but the overall surface sediments were clean to relatively clean, not up to the level of organic pollution. The average C/N ration value of the surface sediments was 13.22, and the organic matter in the sediments was mainly from the exogenous inputs. The analysis of δ 15N further indicated that organic matter in land soil was the main source of organic pollution in the sediments. It was suggested to strengthen the control of soil organic loss in land areas.
Assessment of water environmental management policy in Lake Erhai Basin under the background of ecological civilization
ZHAO Yanfang, XIANG Song, PANG Yan
2019, 9(6): 707-713. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2019.07.150
The policy system of water environmental management in Lake Erhai Basin was sorted out, which included four categories: water resources spatial development and protection, paid use of water resources and ecological compensation, water environmental management and protection market, performance appraisal and accountability investigation, totaling 20 policies. The effectiveness of policy formulation and implementation was assessed by index evaluation method, and the existing problems of the policy system were also analyzed. The evaluation results showed that among the 20 policies, 70% of the policies had phased objectives, nearly 85% of the policies had been considered and adopted by provincial governments of provincial committees and commissions, 50% of the policies needed to be further improved in terms of evaluation, 50% of the existing laws needed to be adjusted to existing laws and regulations, and 60% of the relevant policies needed to be adjusted in the management system. The policy system of Lake Erhai Basin still had some problems, e.g. the policy system was not perfect, the progress of each policy was quite different, some new policies needed to be published, the assessment mechanism was not perfect enough, and the monitoring and warning management level of water environment in the basin needed to be improved. Finally, it was suggested to improve the contents and principles of policy making, improve the scientificity of policy making, speed up introduction of the new policies of ecological civilization, further adjust the existing laws and regulations, perfect the assessment mechanism, and promote the monitoring and early warning capability and management level of the basin.
Problems and countermeasures of controlling cyanobacteria bloom in Taihu Lake
2019, 9(6): 714-719. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2019.07.080
Since the water supply crisis of Taihu Lake on May 29 th, 2007, a series of measures had been taken to improve the water supply, and achieved remarkable results. However, there were still some problems in Taihu Lake, such as the inflow pollution load greatly exceeded the water environmental capacity, the reed wetland was greatly reduced, and the cyanobacteria bloom erupted frequently. Based on the experience and lessons of Taihu Lake management, it was put forward that Taihu Lake management should innovate the integrated thinking of three kinds of technologies: Double Reduction/Double Increase technologies includes reducing point source, non-point source, and endogenous source caused by lake bottom sediment and cyanobacteria, and increasing environmental capacity and water self-purification capacity; Double Algae Removal technologies included blue-green algae fishing and algae suppression and killing; Double Recovery technologies included wetland and biodiversity restoration. Also, the goals of Two Elimination (eutrophication and cyanobacteria bloom) and Two Restoration (wetland and biodiversity) would be achieved, through the in-depth promotion and comprehensive establishment of the lake chief system, and the increase of applied science and technology and capital investment to ensure the effect of governance. Finally, some suggestions were put forward, such as revising the Overall Plan for the Comprehensive Treatment of Water Environment in Taihu Lake Basin, and setting up related research programme on the control and elimination of cyanobacteria bloom, including the goal of eliminating cyanobacteria bloom.
Characteristics and evaluation of heavy metal pollution in soil around coal-fired power plants
LÜ Zhanlu, ZHANG Jinliang, ZOU Tiansen, LIU Kai, WANG Manxiang, ZHANG Han
2019, 9(6): 720-731. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2019.05.240
According to the National Soil Pollution Status Survey Report, the overall soil environment in China was not optimistic. In some areas, soil pollution was heavy, and the quality of cultivated soil environment was worrying. In order to investigate and evaluate the pollution levels of heavy metals in the soil around the coal-fired power plants, according to the sector layout principle for point sources, the sampling sites were laid out at four different distances around the power plants A and B, with the area far away from the power plants was taken as the control point. A total of 32 soil samples were finally collected. The contents of 12 heavy metals such as Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Ag, Cd, Sb, Hg, and Pb were analyzed. The results showed that 8 kinds of heavy metal elements including Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Ag, and Cd in the soil around the two power plants were higher than the average background value of Anhui Province. The average concentration of Cd in the soil around power plants A and B was 0.230 and 0.172 mg/kg, respectively. Compared with the risk screening values under 6.5Risk Control Standard for Soil Contamination of Agricultural Land (GB 15618-2018), the average concentration was 1.79 and 1.49 times higher than the standard value, respectively, and the maximum over-standard points were located at 500 m downwind of 45° angle to the dominant wind and 500 m downwind of the sub-dominant wind direction. The contents of Cr and Cd in the downwind direction of its perennial dominant wind were higher than that of the control points, and the difference was statistically significant (P was 0.03 and 0.04 respectively). The heavy metal elements of Cr, Cd, Ni, As, Pb and Sb around the power plants had obvious spatial distribution differences, which were consistent with the point source distribution characteristics, while the distribution of other heavy metals was uniform, and the difference was not obvious. The pollution degree of heavy metal elements in the soil around power plant A was severe pollution, while that of power plant B was moderate or light pollution, with Nemerow comprehensive pollution index (PI) being 2.7-5.0 and 1.5-2.4, respectively for plants A and B. The comprehensive potential ecological risk index (RI) of various heavy metals around power plants A and B was 105.0-190.7 and 82.1-139.6, respectively, and the potential ecological risk was moderate or slight. The contribution rate of Cd, Hg and As to RI was large. Comprehensively considering the content and spatial distribution characteristics of heavy metals in the soil around the power plants and the results of correlation analysis and cluster analysis, the heavy metal elements in the soil around power plant A may have been affected by human activities, as the pollution degree and potential ecological risk of heavy metals in the soil were significantly higher than that of power plant B and the control points. The pollution orientation was also multi-faceted, not only limited to the downwind direction. Therefore, in the supervision of coal-fired power plants, comprehensive consideration should be given to their impact of various aspects on the environment, soil and population.
Change of ecological landscape in open-pit coal mining area of northern grassland: taking Yimin open coal mine in Hulun Buir City as an example
FAN Xiaoshan, XIONG Xiangyan, MA Jianjun, HE Ping, FENG Chaoyang, SONG Ting
2019, 9(6): 732-740. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2019.05.130
In order to reveal the impact of open-pit coal mining on the mining area's ecological environment, taking Yimin open coal mine in Hulun Buir City of Inner Mongolia as an example, the changes of the mining area and its surrounding ecological landscape in 1975-2010 were studied and the vegetation types and distribution changes analyzed, by using 3S macro-scale research and detailed investigation of ground vegetation. Results showed that the main types of ecological landscape in the mining area and their area and spatial pattern changed greatly in 1975-2010. The grassland landscape area decreased by 10.93%, a large area of original lakes and wetlands disappeared, the river meander near the mining area showed simplified development, and the unchanged type of ecological landscape area only accounted for 32.33% of the total area of the mining area. Compared with the surrounding areas, the species diversity in the mining area decreased, the primary productivity decreased, and the ecological degradation situation was more serious. Human activities had caused great damage and interference to the mining area ecosystem. The closer to industrial and the mining area and human settlements, the greater the scale and intensity of ecological environment damage would be.
Technical framework and application of site-inspection and enforcement for air pollutants from stationary sources
SUN Caiping, SUN Qihong, WANG Wei, LIU Xiaofu, WANG Ying, LUO Lei, LIU Baiyin, QIU Wenting
2019, 9(6): 741-747. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2019.06.172
Waste gas emission has many characteristics such as many outlets, high concentration, miscellaneous species and unstable emissions, and is the main source of air pollution. However, grassroots law enforcement teams generally have problems such as fewer personnel, single inspection methods, and lack of supervision equipment, resulting in low efficiency of stationary source supervision. On the basis of analyzing the supervision effect of traditional law enforcement methods, a new supervision thought which pays more attention to regional supervision and on-site inspection, and implements intensive supervision to promote precise enforcement was put forward. An air-ground integrated, multi-dimensional supervision technical framework system for stationary source air pollutants emission was constructed, and a combination of high-resolution, high-flexibility technologies for different scenes was selected. A demonstration study on the applications of the technologies in the steel industry in Tianjin was carried out. The demonstration results showed that the regulatory technical framework system had good applicability, able to provide multi-scale and comprehensive pollutant emission data sets, and constitute a corporate compliance evaluation matrix, which could provide a strong guarantee for the implementation of accurate enforcement supervision. Limited to the current inconsistency of regulatory regulations and standards, the applications of new technologies need to be promoted by institutions at all levels.
Construction and application of third-party assessment model for eco-environmental protection based on whole-process management
XIE Qiong, FU Qing, WANG Xing, YIN Xueyan, ZHAO Xiliang
2019, 9(6): 748-754. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2019.06.280
There are some problems in current assessment system of eco-environmental protection. e.g. the accountability for environmental protection and the top-level design of the Tough Battle against Pollution haven not been considered into the assessment system of eco-environmental protection, the assessment indicators are not synchronized with the improvement of pollution reduction and environmental quality, the results of assessment are only applied into temporary ranking and have not be used to trace the source of the deficiencies found in the assessment. Aiming at these problems, based on the analysis of assessment subjects and objects, contents and indicators, methods and results, and combined with the specialties of Shiyan City, Hubei Province, a third-party assessment model for eco-environment protection was constructed for the city. It was proposed that the assessment objects mainly involve three departments, and the assessment system with 42 indicators was established, including environmental quality, environmental protection policies, planning, project implementation, environmental authorities, supervision and management of pollution sources, and pollutant discharge bodies. The scoring method of environmental quality and management, as well as the specific assessment method and process in eco-environmental protection assessment were put forward. The application results of the assessment model showed that in 2017, the assessment scores of all counties and districts in Shiyan City presented an upward trend in four quarters. The third-party assessment had played a good role in promoting local environmental protection work, improving the level of environmental management, and promoting the stability and improvement of environmental quality.
Study on the technical framework of negative list compiling for industrial environmental access
WU Na, WANG Yanhua, WU Jia, FENG Qiang, FU Zeqiang
2019, 9(6): 755-760. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2019.06.110
As an important part of the source prevention system, the negative list for industrial environmental access (hereinafter referred to as negative list) system has become a significant measure of current environmental management, playing an important role in guiding and restraining industrial development, coordinating economic development and environmental protection, and promoting green development. With a focus on the implications analysis and drafting principles, the technical route of the negative list for industrial environmental access was constructed, which included industrial environmental rationality analysis, key control industry screening method based on resources and environmental carrying capacity, and environmental management requirements for industrial access. The classification criteria of prohibited and restricted industries were expounded in details, and the environmental management requirements for industrial access presented from project scale, layout and location, resource development efficiency, pollution control, environmental risk prevention and control and so on. At last, the overall framework of the negative list was given.
Research on energy optimization development countermeasures of Jincheng City
SHI Dandan, LUO Hong, LÜ Lianhong, YANG Zhanhong, PEI Yingying
2019, 9(6): 761-768. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2019.06.120
Energy consumption is closely related to the quality of the atmospheric environmental quality. Energy development countermeasures in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and surrounding areas are of great significance for air pollution control. In order to improve the air quality of Jincheng City, the current situation and problems of energy development in the city were analyzed by unary linear regression analysis and comparative analysis. The results showed that the energy consumption structure of Jincheng City was dominated by coal, and the coal consumption in 2017 was 11.76 million tons, accounting for 76.2% of the primary energy consumption. However, the total coal consumption continued to decline. In 2017, the coal consumption decreased by 2.58 million tons compared with 2015, with its proportion in the primary energy consumption reduced by 14.7 percentage points. By 2020, the proportion of coal consumption would continue to decline, but it will still dominate, and the natural gas consumption would rise sharply. The total energy consumption of Jincheng City continued to increase but the growth rate declined; the energy consumption intensity was strong, but the energy efficiency level continued to increase. From the perspective of regional distribution, Zezhou County had the highest energy consumption and energy intensity, as well as a great potential for energy conservation. The proportion of energy consumption in chemical raw materials and chemical manufacturing, electricity-heat production and supply was 67%, and their energy intensities were much higher than that of the average values of the same industries in China. There was a large contribution to air pollutants coming from energy-related key sources such as civil combustion, electricity power, industrial boilers, etc. It was suggested that Jincheng City should strengthen energy conservation and pollutant emission reduction in key industries and essential areas by focusing on boiler transformation, energy engineering measures such as clean heating, coal reduction, energy structure measures such as development of renewable energy, energy and environmental economic policies, enterprise energy efficiency management, and other energy management measures to achieve sustainable development of local energy and environment.
Research on the development status and problems of environmental protection industry parks in China
LI Chongyang, JIANG Lei, WANG Zhiyao
2019, 9(6): 769-774. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2019.06.210
At present, China is confronted with more complex and severe environmental problems, and the government attaches great importance to the development of environmental protection industry. The environmental protection industry and industrial clusters in China are facing not only great opportunities for development, but also a series of problems. The development background of environmental protection industrial parks in China was introduced, the relevant national policy documents of environmental protection industry were sorted out, the current situation and regional distribution of major environmental protection industrial parks in China was expounded, and their regional differences were analyzed. At last, the main difficulties in the development of environmental protection industrial parks were summarized from the aspects of policy, technology, capital and regional development, and the corresponding suggestions were put forward to promote the development of environmental protection industrial parks more healthily and rapidly in China.
The risk of detergent to water environment and its prevention and control countermeasure suggestions
XU Qiujin, YING Guangguo, XIA Qing, TAN Benzhu, JIANG Qi
2019, 9(6): 775-780. doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2019.03.060
With the rapid development of socio-economy and the continuous improvement of the residents' living standards, the discharge of emerging toxic and harmful pollutants has resulted in the increased risk of water environmental pollution in the basin scale, which has seriously affects the safety of the water environment in China. Triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC), as fungicides in detergents, were used as the research objects, and their sources and toxicity were sorted out. The intensive populated Dongjiang River Basin was chosen as a typical case study to analyze the detection rate and the distribution characteristics of TCS and TCC in the river water and sediment. The study showed that TCS and TCC had the highest concentration of 168 and 269 ng/L in the river waters, while the highest concentration of TCS and TCC in the suspended solids was 297 and 431 ng/L, respectively. Furthermore, high content of TCS and TCC was also observed in the sediments, with highest concentration of 656 and 2 723 μg/kg, respectively, indicating that TCS and TCC had become main high-risk chemicals in the Dongjiang River Basin. Currently, the main tasks of the water environmental risk management in China should be to pay great attention to the environmental risk pollutants in the river basin scale, promote ecological washing, and minimize the impact of emerging toxic and harmful pollutants on human and water environment.