2016 Vol. 6, No. 5

Air Pollution Control Technology
Emission Characteristics of In-use Sanitation Trucks Fueled with F-T Diesel
ZHU Rencheng, BAO Xiaofeng, XIE Shuxia, LIU Zemin, LI Yufei
2016, 6(5): 413-419. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2016.05.061
Abstract(1245) PDF(2486KB)(1191)
To carry out application demonstration of alternative fuel for diesel vehicles, the drum tests were conducted with 3 sanitation trucks meeting Euro IV, and the fuel consumption and emission characteristics of vehicles respectively fueled with the Beijing V diesel and the fischer-tropsch (F-T) diesel investigated. The variations of the fuel consumption and smoke emission under the actual running conditions were verified through the road tests with 15 sanitation trucks. The drum test results indicated that compared to the Beijing V diesel, the fuel consumption with F-T diesel increased by 1.2%-4.7% and the CO2 emission decreased by 0.2%-3.3%. The mission levels of CO and total hydrocarbon (THC) were low and had little variation, while the NOx and particulate matter (PM) emissions were reduced significantly by 14.8%-47.2% and 46.5%-55.0%, respectively. The road test showed that when fueled with the F-T diesel, the fuel consumption slightly increased, by approximately 4.8%, and the smoke opacity decreased obviously, by approximately 28.9%. In conclusion, the F-T diesel should be a fine supplemental/alternative diesel fuel in China.
Water Pollution Control Technology
Enhancement of Pharmaceutical Wastewater Treatment in CASS Reactor by High-efficiency Degrading Bacteria
ZHOU Zhufeng, SONG Youtao, LIAO Miao, ZENG Ping, ZHANG Junke, FAN Yadong
2016, 6(5): 420-426. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2016.05.062
Abstract(1312) PDF(4686KB)(1403)
The mixer of fosfomycin degrading bacteria was added into cyclic activated sludge system (CASS) reactor to treat the effluent from an anaerobic baffled reactor which was fed with pharmaceutical wastewater. The CODCr, NH4+-N and TP removal efficiencies were studied, and the comparison between CASS reactor with and without inoculation was carried out. The results showed that when the reactor C2 was inoculated with fosfomycin degrading bacteria, and with the average CODCr of 1 101.4 mg/L,average NH4+-N of 134.7 mg/L, average TP of 22.1 mg/L in the influent, the CODCr, NH4+-N and TP of effluent were 203.7, 12.6 and 3.2 mg/L, respectively. Accordingly, the average removal efficiency of CODCr, NH3-N and TP was 81.57%, 90.67% and 85.44%, respectively. Comparatively, the average removal efficiency of CODCr, NH3-N, TP of the reactor C1 that was not inoculated with fosfomycin degrading bacteria was 66.91%, 84.30% and 67.41%. Thus the reactor C2 inoculated with fosfomycin degrading bacteria showed better CODCr, NH3-N, TP removal efficiencies than reactor C1. The main fluorescent materials in the influent were identified as aromatic protein substances and soluble microbial products based on the three-dimensional fluorescence spectra analysis. They were removed obviously after inoculated with fosfomycin degrading bacteria.
Pollutants Degradation Characteristics and Microbial Community Structure Using Cornstarch Wastewater as Denitrification Carbon Source
GUO Xiaoya, NIAN Yuegang, YAN Haihong, YIN Qin, GAO Peng, CHEN Guangwei
2016, 6(5): 427-433. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2016.05.064
Abstract(1370) PDF(2837KB)(1378)
Using cornstarch wastewater as carbon source for denitrification, the removal effects of nitrate nitrogen and organic matter were studied. The degradation characteristics of dissolved organic matter were investigated by excitation-emission matrix spectrum(EEMs) combined with parallel factor analysis(PARAFAC), and the community structure of microorganisms in activated sludge was analyzed by high-throughput sequencing. The results showed that the removal rate of NOx--N(the total concentrations of NO3--N and NO 2--N) was 96.80%. Two kinds of fluorescence components can be identified by EEMs-PARAFAC, including tyrosine-like substance Component 1(230 nm/310 nm, 275 nm/310 nm) and tryptophan-like substance Component 2(220 nm/350 nm, 280 nm/350 nm). The fluorescence intensity of Component 1 showed a downtrend and disappeared finally, which illustrated that the substance could be completely degraded by microorganisms. The fluorescence intensity of Component 2 gradually increased and Component 2 was the byproduct of microbial metabolism. Three dominant bacteria in the acclimated sludge were uncultured bacterium, Burkholderiales and Rhodocyclales, and the relative abundance of them was 18.54%, 14.65% and 14.13%, respectively.
Removal of Malachite Green in Simulated Wastewater by Modified Bagasse
WANG Yannan, LI Wenwen, SUN Yunfei, ZHAO Guangchao
2016, 6(5): 434-439. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2016.05.064
Abstract(1209) PDF(1377KB)(1349)
Using sugarcane bagasse as raw material, the microwave method was applied for the synthesis of Fe3O4 magnetically modified bagasse. Then a chemical modification was followed by the use of citric acid, and finally a kind of biomass adsorbent which could be quickly and easily separated and had good adsorption effect was prepared for removal of malachite green in simulation wastewater. The removal effect of malachite green between bagasse before and after modification was compared, and the structure and components of the two kinds of materials were characterized by SEM and FTI. The adsorption mechanism was explored applying adsorption kinetics experiment and equilibrium experiment, and the influence of the temperature, pH and adsorbent dosage on the adsorption tested. The result shows that the adsorption process conforms to the Pseudo-second order kinetic model and the Langmuir model. For 50 mL malachite green solution with the initial concentration of 20 mg/L, under the pH of 7.5 and the temperature of 50 ℃, the removal rate of 98% could be reached by adding 15 mg of sorbent. The adsorption amount was 140.2 mg/g, nearly double of that by bagasse with no modification.
Effect of Hydrothermal Pretreatment on Physicochemical Properties of Sludge
WANG Zaizhao, JIA Tongtong, WANG Jiaoqin, GONG Lei
2016, 6(5): 440-446. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2016.05.065
Abstract(1541) PDF(1169KB)(1437)
The effect of hydrothermal reaction temperature, time and solid-liquid ratio on the physicochemical properties of excessive sludge was investigated during the hydrothermal pretreatment of excessive sludge. The results showed that the dissolution rate of CODCr and the reduction of sludge increased with the increasing of hydrothermal reaction temperature. At 200 ℃, the dissolution rate of CODCr was the highest, 96.5% higher than that of the raw sludge. The maximum reduction of sludge was 80.1% and the ammonia nitrogen changed irregularly. The hydrothermal time had little effect on the reduction of sludge and the dissolution of ammonia nitrogen. When the hydrothermal time was 1 hour, the dissolution rate of CODCr reached the highest, 96.5% higher than that of the raw sludge. When the solid-liquid ratio was 10%, the dissolution of ammonia nitrogen reached the least of 1.093mg/g after hydrothermal pretreatment. By comprehensively investigating the effect of the three factors on the physicochemical properties of excessive sludge, the optimal hydrothermal conditions were identified at solid-liquid ratio of 10% at 200 ℃ after 1hour of hydrothermal treatment. Under these conditions, the best sludge pretreatment effect could be obtained, and the maximum CODCr dissolution ratio thus reached.
Study on Collection and Disposal Technology of Laboratory Hazardous Liquid
JIANG Yusheng, XIE Kai, TANG Danping, TIAN Wei, XIAO Xiaofeng, GAO Xiaoying
2016, 6(5): 447-452. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2016.05.066
Abstract(1496) PDF(1225KB)(1516)
The collection and disposal of laboratory waste liquid are important and difficult parts for hazardous waste management in laboratory. Based on summarizing the practical experience, in-depth survey and conducting experiments, the collection and disposal technologies of laboratory waste liquid were systematically investigated. The classification method and process were proposed, and requirements of the material, size and shape of the packaging container, the sorting and packing process of disposal unit, and the method of pre-processing were analyzed. Finally, the superiority disposal technologies were pointed out based on comparing existing technologies such as physiochemical methods, biological methods and incineration methods.
Watershed Pollution Control Technology
The Long-term Nitrogen Removal Efficiency from Agricultural Runoff in Phragmites Australis Packed Surface Flow Constructed Wetland
Chang yang, WANG Tong, WANG Haiyan, CHU Zhaosheng, HANG Qianyu, LIU Kai, HOU Zeying
2016, 6(5): 453-461. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2016.05.067
Abstract(1366) PDF(2061KB)(1572)
The low C/N ratio and high nitrate proportion characteristics of agricultural runoff makes its nitrate removal difficult. To resolve such problem, the economically and easily obtained Phragmites australis stems and leaves were applied and packed in the surface layer of the surface flow constructed wetland (PSFW) as external carbon sources to study the long-term nitrogen removal from agricultural runoff. Compared with control PSFW0, obviously higher nitrate removal efficiency was observed in Phragmites australis packed PSFW during 29-149 d operation. When the influent NO3--N and TN were (16.4±1.0) mg/L and (17.7±2.0) mg/L and the HRTs were 2 d, 3 d and 4 d, the highest nitrogen removal efficiency was achieved under 4 d HRT condition, and the NO3--N and TN removal efficiency in PSFW were (87.4±6.0)% and (74.1%±6.0)%. Those removal in PSFW0 were (14.4±4.0)% and (14.4±3.0)% respectively. Slight higher denitrification efficiency was obtained in PSFW than that in PSFW0 during 150-269 d operation. When the influent NO3--N and TN were (10.4±1.0) mg/L and (10.8±1.0) mg/L and the HRTs were 3 d, 2d and 1d, the highest nitrogen removal efficiency was achieved under 3d HRT condition, and the NO3--N and TN removal efficiency in PSFW were (91.9±7.0)% and (90.2±7.0)%. Those removal were (91.3±5.0)% and (86.4±6.0)% in PSFW0 accordingly. Slight lower denitrification efficiency was obtained in PSFW than that in PSFW0 during 270-334 d operation. When the influent NO3--N and TN were (5.7±0.4) mg/L and (7.2±0.8) mg/L and the HRT was 3 d, the NO3--N and TN removal efficiency in PSFW were (88.6±10.0)% and (82.5±7.0)%. Those removal were (94.0±6.0)%和(87.8±3.0)% in PSFW0 accordingly.
Impact of Calcium and pH on Content of Phosphorus in Water of Qingcaosha Reservoir of Yangtze Estuary
JING Xiaodan, WU Hao, WANG Qiming, GAO Hefeng, DI Yu, CHEN Hexiao, CAO Hongjun, CHEN Qiuying
2016, 6(5): 462-468. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2016.05.068
Abstract(1570) PDF(1534KB)(1495)
To study the effect of calcium ion and pH on phosphorus content in the water in the Yangtze Estuary Reservoir, the rule of phosphorus adsorption and release in the sediment and the change of various forms of phosphorus affected by calcium ion and pH was analyzed, and the components of the sediment was further analyzed by XRD technology. The result suggested that Ca2+ significantly increased the adsorption of sediment on phosphorus while inhibiting the release of phosphorus from sediment, and thus the content of phosphorus in the water decreased. With the action of Ca2+, under pH<3, the sediment significantly decreased the release of phosphorus, it increased the content phosphorus in the water. Under pH>3, the sediment significantly increased the adsorption of phosphorus, and decreased the content phosphorus in the water. When the content of Ca binding P (Ca-P) fraction increased in the sediment, the content of Ca5(OH)(PO4)3increased, and new material of Ca -binding crystalline compound appeared on the sediment. In alkaline condition, the content of phosphorus in the water decreased because of Ca2+.
Study on Extraction and Purification of C-phycocyanin by Combined Use of Powdered Activated Carbon Treatment and Aqueous Two-phase Extraction from Cyanobacteria
SHENG Jingmeng, ZHANG Fayu, YUAN Mengyuan, WANG Jiaquan
2016, 6(5): 469-475. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2016.05.069
Abstract(1360) PDF(1378KB)(1371)
Extraction and purification of C-phycocyanin were performed by the combined use of powdered activated carbon (PAC) treatment and aqueous two-phase extraction from fresh Cyanobacteria mud in Chaohu Lake. Firstly, the effects of PAC on purification of C-phycocyanin were studied by considering the dosage of powdered activated carbon. Then, the single factor and orthogonal experiments were conducted to determine the optimum conditions in the PAC treatment and aqueous two-phase purification, which were PEG 4000 as polymer, the PEG 4000 concentration 4%, the potassium phosphate concentration 16% and pH 7.0. The verification test showed that after the purification by the optimized process, the purity and recovery rate of C-phycocyanin could reach to 3.461 7 and 63%, respectively. It was with less equipment requirements, lower cost and shorter time, etc., compared with traditional methods.
Soil Pollution Control Technology
Pollution Characteristics and Pollution Risk Evaluation of Heavy Metals in Soil of Lead-zinc Mining Area
HE Xuwen, WANG Yuxiang, FANG Zengqiang, CUI Xiaoyu, ZHANG Siyu
2016, 6(5): 476-483. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2016.05.070
Abstract(1447) PDF(1348KB)(1713)
In order to analyze the pollution characteristics and evaluate the pollution risk of heavy metals in soil in lead-zinc mining areas, soil samples in a lead-zinc mining area in Hunan province were collected and analyzed. The mineral compositions were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) method. The soil samples were digested by microwave digestion instrument, and then the concentration of heavy metals detected by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The heavy metal forms were analyzed by method proposed by the European Communities Bureau of Reference (BCR). Finally, the heavy metal pollution potential environmental risk was assessed. The results show that the soil components mainly include quartz, feldspar, kaolinite and montmorillonite, etc. The pollution level for different heavy metals is in the order of Zn>Pb>Ni>Cd>Cu>Cr>As. The heavy metals have different leaching behaviors in different leaching experiments, and Ni possesses the highest proportion of residual state, while Zn has the highest proportion of acid extractable state. The pollution index and potential ecological risk index of heavy metals in soil are high on the whole. Cd possesses the highest single pollution index with the Nemerow comprehensive index of 1 472.98. Cd also possesses the highest environmental risk coefficient with the comprehensive pollution index RI of up to 25 380.63 that exceeds the high ecological risk threshold by 211.51 times.
Application of Urban Sludge in Restoration of Sandy-land in North of China:A Viewpoint
WANG Lei, XIANG Bao, SU Benying, FANG Guangling, HU Yu, PAN Libo, WANG Yue
2016, 6(5): 484-492. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2016.05.071
Abstract(1433) PDF(1543KB)(1406)
Soil degradation and desertification were widely and severely existed in Northern China. The amelioration of the sandy soil and restoration of the sandy plants were currently the key tasks for protection of regional ecological environment, and also the important content for promotion of regional ecological civilization construction. Given the large fluidity, low concentrations of organic compounds and deficient water-retaining ability of northern sandy soil and based on review of previous literature, it was suggested that municipal sludge could be recycled and used to ameliorate sandy soil and restore sandy plants since the municipal sludge has the good properties of sufficient resources, high amount of organic compounds and glutinous matters, enrichment of nutrients (i.e., NPK, etc.), facilitating the growth of sandy plants, etc. However, since the municipal sludge is mainly originated from industrial and municipal wastewater treatment plant, it contains certain amounts of heavy metals, organic compounds, pathogenic microorganisms and other hazardous components which may provoke the potential risk to the ecological environment of sandy land if directly applied. Therefore, to ensure the availability of utilizing municipal sludge in ecological restoration of sandy land, several measures were recommended to be taken such as controlling the source of pollutants, applying the biological compost/fermentation and solidification/stabilization pretreatment technologies, formulating corresponding technical guidelines, rigidly managing its application scopes and amounts, and exerting a long-term tracked detection and risk assessment.
Solid Waste Pollution Control Technology
Simulation of Municipal Solid Waste Resource Recovery Based on System Dynamics Model: The Case of Dalian
WANG Geng, LI You
2016, 6(5): 493-500. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2016.05.072
Abstract(1430) PDF(4321KB)(1649)
Since the beginning of reform and opening in 1978, with the development of urbanization and the improvement of people's living level, the municipal solid waste (MSW) generation has increased rapidly in China, which has seriously affected the construction of ecological civilization in the cities. With Dalian city as an example, the system dynamics method was used to establish the system dynamic simulation model for MSW resource recovery, and the scenarios analysis was accordingly performed. The treatment amounts of various methods, the volumes and life of MSW landfill sites in Dalian city under two different schemes, and the power generation by MSW incineration were projected. The results show that the fourth phase of Maoyingzi MSW Landfill in Dalian will be filled by the end of 2016. Therefore, it is imperative to put waste incineration and power generation as the main way of resource recovery, by increasing investment in waste incineration and constructing more MSW incinerators.
Pilot Scale Study on Plasma Vitrification of Municipal Waste Incinerator Fly Ash
HUANG Wenyou, MENG Yuedong, CHEN Mingzhou, LU Jie, LÜ Yonghong
2016, 6(5): 501-508. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2016.05.073
Abstract(2312) PDF(2281KB)(2285)
The plasma vitrification is one method of detoxification and disposal of municipal waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash. To obtain key data for engineering application, MSWI fly ash was melted with a pilot scale plasma furnace at the conditions of continuous feeding and discharging. The properties of slag, secondary fly ash and off-gas were analyzed, and the energy consumption calculated. According to the test, the densities of slag quenched by water and air are 3.01 and 2.90 g/cm3, respectively. The leaching test results of heavy metals from the two kinds of slags were all below the limits in Identification standards for hazardous wastes-Identification for extraction toxicity (GB 5085.3-2007). During the pilot scale test, about 280 kg fly ash was melted, and energy consumption of fly ash melting was 1.12 kW·h/kg. The production ratio of secondary fly ash was 7.1%, with NaCl and KCl as its major components.
Some Thoughts on NIMBY Effect of Disposal Site
WU Han, WANG Liang, SUN Feng, TENG Keyan
2016, 6(5): 509-513. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2016.05.074
Abstract(1516) PDF(842KB)(1403)
The basic characteristics of the NIMBY effect of the radioactive waste disposal (RWD) site was analyzed, combined with foreign and domestic research achievements on the NIMBY effects of the location of the RWD sites. The classification and characteristics of real right was comprehensively analyzed using the comparative analysis method. Based on division of land, the legal attribute of NIMBY effect of RWD was discussed, and the legal essence of the abuse of the RWD site put forward. The results showed that after the confirmation of the legal attribute of the NIMBY of the RWD site, the problem can be solved by judicial procedure, so as to ensure that the RWD site and the adjacent land property rights can be legally exercised and not abused. The strategy of NIMBY problem was put forward from the aspect of law combined with China's present situation of RWD site, and the enlightenment of RWD siting in China was preliminary discussed.
The Levels of Emissions Control Technology Needs Direction Analysis
Problems of Water Pollutants Discharge Standards for Food Manufacturing Industry in China and Enlightenment from European Union Experience
WANG Hongyang, ZHAO Xin, CAI Mulin, ZHAO Lina, LI Min, ZHOU Xiaosong, WANG Haiyan
2016, 6(5): 514-522. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2016.05.075
Abstract(1586) PDF(884KB)(1354)
The sources and characteristics of the wastewater from food manufacturing industry were introduced in details, the situations of discharge standards related to food manufacturing industry in China systematically reviewed, and the application scope and control items and limits discussed. The results indicate that the application scope covered by related industrial water pollutants discharge standards is incomplete, and there are some overlaps among the standards, with similar control items and limits. These problems have certain negative impacts on effective control of food manufacturing industry water pollutants. Accordingly, the pollution prevention and control systems, the pollutant generation and emission analysis methods, and the concept of whole process pollution control in food manufacturing industry of European Union (EU) were studied. The referential significance of EU pollution control was discussed. Finally, some suggestions for the development of water pollutants discharge standard in food manufacturing industry of China were proposed, including strengthening the concept of whole process pollution control, enhancing scientific and systematic analysis of pollutant generation and emission, and improving setting of the water pollutant discharge standard system.