2011 Vol. 1, No. 5

Air Pollution Control Technology and Usage of Clean Energy
Experimental Simulation of NOx Formation and Emission from Low-capacity Coal-fired Industrial Boilers
WU Xue-fang, WANG Zong-shuang, WANG Sheng, SHENG Qing, CHE Fei, XU Shu, ZHOU Yu-hua, WU Ting
2011, 1(5): 365-375. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.05.062
Abstract(3946) PDF(3764KB)(1327)
NOx was the priority pollutant to be controlled during the Twelfth Five-Year Plan period, and coal-fired industrial boilers were its main sources. In order to study the rule of NOx formation and emission from coal-fired industrial boilers, the raw coal/char firing method to simulate the combustion process of different kinds of coals was carried out in the laboratory. The reaction from volatiles-N and char-N to generate NOx was studied and the rule of fuel-type NOx formation and emission investigated. Difference of NOx generation coefficient between experiment and field test was analyzed. The results indicated that NO conversion rate of bituminous, anthracite and char was 25.77%, 22.17% and 11.98%, respectively; and NOx generation coefficient was 4.31 kg/t coal, 5.08 kg/t coal and 2.00 kg/t coal respectively, which was higher than field test. Fuel-type NOx was the main source of NOx from coal-fired industrial boilers. Fuel-type NOx formation and emission was a very complex multi-phase procession formed by volatile-N oxidation and reduction reaction as well as char-N oxidation and reduction reaction. The coal types, temperature, air flow, grain size, oxygen content had influence on the four reactions to distinct extent.
Variation of Urban Heat Island Characteristics at Medium-sized City in the Northwest: A Case of Tianshui
PU Yu-jun, PU Jin-yong
2011, 1(5): 376-382. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.05.063
Abstract(3637) PDF(786KB)(1071)
To explore the urban heat island (UHI) at medium-sized cities in the Northwest, the difference of temperature in the urban area and suburbs was analyzed with the meteorological data in automatic meteorological stations in Tianshui city from 2004 to 2010. The result showed that the heat island was obvious in urban area of Tianshui, with the strongest heat island appearing in winter and the weakest in summer. The urban area played as a “heat island” during 18:00 to 10:00 which was two-thirds of the day with the biggest UHI intensity of 1.5 ℃, and as a “cool island” during 11:00-17:00 which was one-third of the day with the biggest “cold island” intensity of 0.3 ℃.The surface temperature varied more obvious than air temperature between urban area and suburbs. The surface temperature below 40cm in the urban area was higher than that in suburbs throughout the whole year. The urban area basically played as a “cool island” during snowy days and long-range rainfall days. There was no significant difference of temperature between urban and suburb areas during the strong temperature drop days.
Solid Waste Pollution Prevention and Recycling Technology
Research on CH4 Emission Fluxes from Active Terrace Surface of MSW Semi-aerobic Landfills
YANG Xue, YUE Bo, HUANG Ze-chun, YIN Yin, HUANG Qi-fei, WANG Qi
2011, 1(5): 383-388. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.05.064
Abstract(3510) PDF(722KB)(994)
Methane emission fluxes from active terrace surfaces of different landfilling age of a Minicipal Solid Waste(MSW) semi-anaerobic landfill in Hebei Province were determined by the static chamber/gas chromatographic method. The results showed that significant differences were found among methane emission fluxes, with the maximum and the minimum being 215.51 and 0.13 g/(m2·d), respectively. The methane emission fluxes near the air pipe area were higher than the other areas, and the methane emission fluxes in the morning, noon and afternoon in the same area had small differences, and the emission order was afternoon>noon>morning. Moreover, the average methane fluxes in the areas with 8, 12,16 and 20 months of landfilling age were 4.79, 21.15, 81.04 and 7.44 g/(m2·d), respectively. The methane fluxes increased first and then decreased with the landfilling age and reached the maximum at the 16th month. In addition, methane fluxes from active terrace surfaces of different age areas decreased exponentially with increasing distances from the air pipe.
Influence of Peat on the Field Bioremediation Efficiency of Aged Oily Sludge in Oil Field
LU Gui-lan, WANG Shi-jie, GUO Guan-lin, WANG Xiang, ZHANG Yu, ZHANG Chao, LI Fa-sheng
2011, 1(5): 389-395. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.05.065
Abstract(3740) PDF(1009KB)(1113)
Peat was used as biosubstrate and mixed with aged oily sludge in the ratio of 1∶1, and the field experiment was conducted to study the influence of peat on the bioremediation of aged oily sludge by landfarming. The results showed that after 26 months of field test, the bioremediation efficiency of aged oily sludge was significantly enhanced by adding peat, and the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) of oily sludge was reduced by 38.9%. The physicochemical properties of oily sludge was obviously improved, the salinity and alkaline concentration decreased significantly with the pH being reduced from 8.7 to 6.9 and salinity from 20.3 g/kg to 7.3 g/kg, the content of organic matter increased by 17.3%, and the available nutrient elements of N, P, K increased significantly. Compared with natural attenuation, the enhanced bioremediation of aged oily sludge with peat could increase microbial quantity and biodiversity.
Environmental Technology Verification and Evaluation System Technology
Preliminary study on the Framework of Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) System in China
XU Chun-lian, SONG Qian-wu, HUANG Hai-ming, ZHANG Wei, WU Shao-wei, WANG Hong-yu, QI Rui-jiang, ZHANG Yue
2011, 1(5): 396-402. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.05.066
Abstract(4084) PDF(1134KB)(990)
At the background of urgent need of Environment Technology Verification At the background of urgent need of Environment Technology Verification (ETV) System based on the independent third-party monitoring organizations, the problems of current environmental technology assessment system was analyzed and a framework of ETV platform construction in China investigated. It was proposed that during the technical management system construction process, the ETV system and new technology popularization mechanism should be established in line with international standards and be suited to China's national conditions. The impartial, scientific and objective assessment method, index system and quality control procedure should be established. Meanwhile, environmental technology monitoring platform and information service platform, together with the reputable and socialized third-party organizations should be founded. Finally, specific research areas and construction work related with ETV were proposed.
Toxicological Effects of Cyanobacterial Cell Extract on Muridae
QIN Wen-di, YANG Liu-yan
2011, 1(5): 443-448. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.05.074
Abstract(3580) PDF(904KB)(1302)
Cyanobacterial bloom causes serious ecological disasters and health hazards and as well as has become a global environmental problem. There is an association between increased incidence of various digestive tract tumor and cyanobacterial toxins produced by occurrence of cyanobacteria bloom and its toxicological effects and health risk have become a focus of academic research. The toxicological effects of cyanobacterial cell extract are different from pure microcystin. The study on toxicological effects of cyanobacterial cell extract on muridae can provide the theoretical basis for the health risks assessment of cyanobacterial bloom. The toxicological effects of cyanobacterial cell extract on cell apoptosis, the damage of the antioxidant enzyme defense system of muridae, the genetic toxicity and cancer promotion or carcinogenesis of cyanobacterial cell extracts to muridae were sumed up and these studies also are current hot and difficult problems.
Industrial Park Environmental Risk Assessment and Management Techniques
Environmental Risk Classification and Management for Chemical Industry Parks
GUO Li-juan, YUAN Peng, SONG Yong-hui, WANG Li, PENG Jian-feng, XU Wei-ning
2011, 1(5): 403-408. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.05.067
Abstract(4851) PDF(812KB)(1471)
In view of the importance of building up the environmental risk management system for chemical industry parks (CIPs) and in reference to US EPA’s general guidance on risk management programs for chemical accident prevention, the basic framework of environmental risk management for CIPs was proposed. The idea of risk classification was applied to the management of CIPs, and the three-level risk management solutions put forward. The method was applied to identify risks of a chemical industry park in Henan Province, in which the enterprises were classified into three risk levels. The results showed that two enterprises were of first-level environmental risk sources, one of second level and four of third level out of the 19 facilities in the park. For the enterprise with high-level risk, environmental risk receptor investigation, public participation and preparation of emergency response plans should be strengthened besides the daily risk management, so as to control the serious environmental pollution incidents within their incubation periods, and effectively prevent environmental pollution accidents and reduce environmental hazards.
Monitoring Sites Setting for Major Liquid Environmental Risk Sources in Chemical Industry Parks
LI Ji, LIU Zheng-tao, LI Han-dong, LIU Xiu-hua, HE Xiao-tian, LI Teng
2011, 1(5): 409-413. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.05.068
Abstract(4145) PDF(771KB)(1425)
Monitoring environmental risk sources scientifically was the most effective way for the prevention of environmental pollution accidents. However, the sites setting method of environmental risk sources monitoring had not been formed systematically in China. Referencing to the concept of basin water-quality target management, the monitoring sites setting methods for major liquid environmental risk sources in chemical industry parks were constructed based on the principle of “by region, by type and by grade”. General requirements on monitoring regions for the different grades of major liquid environmental risk sources were proposed, and the methods and regulations for monitoring sites setting for major liquid environmental risk sources in different regions were also put forward. One chemical industry park was analyzed for demonstration of monitoring sites setting.
Chemical and Ecotoxicological Assessment of Environmental Risk Analysis
Study on Assessment of Persistent, Bioaccumulation and Toxic Chemicals in China
WANG Hong, YANG Ni-yun, YAN Zhen-guang, YU Ruo-zhen, WANG Yi-zhe, LIU Zheng-tao
2011, 1(5): 414-419. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.05.069
Abstract(8389) PDF(819KB)(1659)
On the basis of a comprehensive analysis of the progress of identification and risk management of persistent, bioaccumulation and toxic (PBT) chemicals in USA, Canada, UK and EU, etc., the techniques, methodologies and management countermeasures for PBT assessment and control in China were discussed. The suggestion on risk management strategic objectives and environmental managerial identification criteria of PBT chemicals in China were proposed and assessment method of PBT chemicals discussed.
Research Progress in the Toxicology of Silver Nanoparticles
DENG Fu-rong, WEI Hong-ying, GUO Xin-biao
2011, 1(5): 420-424. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.05.070
Abstract(4473) PDF(729KB)(1664)
Due to its antibacterial properties, Silver nanoparticles has been widely used in various fields, such as environment, agriculture and medicals, etc. Previous studies had investigated the health effects and action mechanism of silver nanoparticles in vivo and in vitro studies. However, due to the limitation of study design or research conditions, the previous research results were still insufficient and the health effects and action mechanism of silver nanoparticles still unclear. The research progress in toxicology of silver nanoparticles in recent years was reviewed, and the lack of current research as well as future research prospects discussed.
Establishment and Development of Good Laboratory Practice System for Chemicals Test
WANG Yi-zhe, YAO Wei, HUANG Xing, LIU Zheng-tao
2011, 1(5): 425-430. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.05.071
Abstract(3952) PDF(832KB)(1283)
According to Regulation on Environmental Management of New Chemical Substances, the chemicals testing laboratories which provided test data for new chemicals should be noticed by the Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP), and also need to accept the supervision and inspection from MEP. By referring to the basic international GLP principles and experience in the practice of other GLP certification in China and combining with the inspection experience carried out by MEP and the situation of chemicals testing laboratories, current status and existing problems of chemicals testing laboratory management were discussed, which would provide new management ideas for promoting the chemicals laboratory system establishment.
Development and Suggestions on Chemical Risk Assessment System Establishment
YAO Wei, WANG Yi-zhe
2011, 1(5): 431-437. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.05.072
Abstract(4264) PDF(1194KB)(1661)
Chemical risk assessment is the core scientific basis and main technical approach of chemical management, and establishing chemical risk assessment system is of great importance to China. The international progress and experience on establishment of regulation and system and development of guidance, models and databases of chemical risk assessment system were summarized. The achievements and problems of system establishment, guidelines and standards formulation, scientific research and information gathering in chemical risk assessment in China were analyzed, and the suggestions on legislation establishment, technical system development, basic capacity building, survey and monitoring improvement to establish chemical risk assessment system in China given.
Study and Application of the Heavy Metal Ions Rapid Analysis Method
YU Ruo-zhen, Wang Hong-mei, FANG Zheng, YAN Zhen-guang, WANG Hong
2011, 1(5): 438-442. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.05.073
Abstract(5138) PDF(697KB)(2434)
The rapid testing technology for heavy metal ions in environmental samples is in urgent need in the screening level in unexpected environmental pollution incidents and regional ecological risk assessment. Rapid detection methods of heavy metal ions in environmental samples include electrochemical methods and biological methods. There are standardized products of electrochemical anodic stripping voltammetry that can detect several heavy metal ions simultaneously. But the test costs are relatively high. With the nano-particle technology and quartz crystal microbalance analyzer introduced, ASV method will continue to reduce testing costs; Biological detection methods, including the immunoassay and functional DNA detection techniques. Heavy metal ions immunoassay has high-through out samples, testing, low cost. It has been widely used in food examination, which the immunoassay of mercury ions in environmental samples has become the standard testing methods. Immunosensor technology will extend the application space of rapid detection of heavy metal ions. Research of functional DNA sensor will provide a new technical means for the detection of heavy metal ions, but these studies in laboratory have not reached the level of practical application.
Comprehensive Evaluation Method for Self-purification Ability of Suzhou Creek in the Early Period of Ecological Restoration
YANG Jing, YIN Hao-wen, CHEN Xiao-qian, LI Kang
2011, 1(5): 449-454. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.05.075
Abstract(4173) PDF(751KB)(1204)
Associated with chemical and biological parameters of water quality of Suzhou Creek, the variation of lag phase and rate of degradation while adding chemicals to water samples were analyzed, water self-purification capacity was comprehensively assessed, and the method to evaluate the self-purification ability of Suzhou Creek in its process of ecological restoration was discussed. Six kinds of organic compounds, including sodium acetate, aniline, phenol, diethylene glycol, ethylene glycol and paraldehyde, were respectively added into the upstream and downstream water samples collected from Suzhou Creek in the year 2008, and the results of each additive between downstream and upstream compared. Combining the related water quality data, comparison analysis between 2006 and 2008 could be made that both the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) and the degradation capability of all additives of upstream and downstream were sharply decreased in 2008, especially for the degradation of paraldehyde which was markedly reduced from 77.82% and 88.73% in 2006 to 35.83% and 65.86% in 2008, respectively. There were no significant changes in the external organic input during these two years, while the number of heterotrophic bacteria of the upstream water was sharply dropped from 4.7×104 CFU/mL in 2006 to 2.2×103 CFU/mL in 2008, leading to decreased degradation and adaptability of sodium acetate, aniline, phenol, ethylene glycol and paraldehyde. It was suggested that the self-purification capacity of Suzhou Creek had been comprehensively weakened on the whole, and the loss of self-purification capacity of upstream water was more significant in 2008 compared with 2006.