2011 Vol. 1, No. 3

Special Approximations
Study on Current Status of Air Pollution Control for Coal-fired Power Plants in China
ZHANG Jian-yu, PAN Li, YANG Fan, LIU Jia
2011, 1(3): 185-196. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.03.031
Abstract(5274) PDF(1383KB)(1410)
Power industry of China has made great achievements from 1978. By the end of 2010, the national installed power capacities and the electricity generation of China has reached 962.19 GW and 4.228 trillion kW·h respectively, ranking the second in the world since 1996. The air pollution of coal-fired power plants had been controlled significantly, and the emissions of major pollutants been controlled effectively, with the emission performance declining year by year. The emission performance of the dust emission, SO2 and NOx decreased to 1.0, 3.2 and 2.9 g/(kW·h) respectively in the end of 2009. The power industry took proactive responses toward climate change, and the cumulative emission reduction of CO2 of power industry was about 951 million tons from 2006 to 2009, compared to the 2005 level. Looking forward to the Twelfth Five-Year Plan period (2011-2015), the power industry should insist on the control roadmap of combining the source control and end-of-pipe treatment, and the key work on the regional joint prevention and the multi pollutant control to control the air pollutants; and insist on optimizing the power structure and enhancing the energy saving to deal with climate change.
Air Pollution Control Technology and Usage of Clean Energy
Remote Sensing Diagnosis Analysis of Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Carbon Monoxide in China
WEI Peng, REN Zhen-hai, CHEN Liang-fu, TAO Jin-hua, WANG Wen-jie, CHENG Shui-yuan, GAO Qing-xian, WANG Rui-bin, XIE Shu-yan, TAN Jie
2011, 1(3): 197-204. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.03.032
Abstract(4319) PDF(3522KB)(1321)
A contrastive analysis of the CO column density data derived from Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) observations and the CO hourly concentration monitoring data in September 2010 was analyzed. The results showed that the two series of data were synchronous in time, with relative coefficient of 0.63(α=0.05), and thus the data from AIRS could reflect the surface CO pollution. The spatial and temporal distribution of CO in China during 2004-2010 was investigated by using the remote sensing data. It was found that the average CO column density order from heavy to light was North China, Yangtze River Delta, Central China, Pearl River Delta, Northeast China, Sichuan and Xinjiang. The peeks were reached in March or April and the column density was stable during the seven years. The CO column density distribution had the characteristic of distinct converging belt. Combined with the weather data, the results revealed that the uniform pressure fields covered in the center and rear of anticyclones were the main background fields to form distinct converging belts.
Experimental Study on Steel Slag Used as Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization Absorbent
ZHU Jin-wei, WANG Fan, REN Hong-yan, ZHANG Fan, WANG Hong-mei, LIU Yu
2011, 1(3): 205-209. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.03.033
Abstract(3761) PDF(741KB)(1454)
Experimental study on jet bubbling wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by using steel slag as an absorbent was carried out, and mechanism of FGD reaction studied based upon components of steel slag emulsion variance after FGD reaction. Optimal experiment condition was concluded by considering concentration of steel slag emulsion and depth of jet pipe submerged. Experimental results showed that FGD efficiency could be reached over 70% when the concentration of steel slag emulsion was 25%, the depth of jet pipe submerged was 130 mm, and pH was 6.6-6.8. It was concluded that components of CaO, MgO, Fe2O3, Al2O3 contained in steel slag could be effective in FGD desulfurization, and content of f-CaO and MgO in steel slag emulsion decreased after the FGD reaction, thus avoid the problem of FGD by-product expansion in case of water caused by f-CaO and MgO. Comparative experiments were conducted by using steel slag emulsion and limestone powder as absorbents, and the results showed obvious agreement obtained by using steel slag emulsion and limestone as FGD reaction respectively, and therefore steel slag could be used as wet FGD absorber replacing limestone.
Topics on Environmental Criteria and Standards Development and Management
Environmental Health Standard Framework in China during the Twelfth Five-Year Plan
DUAN Xiao-li, LI Yi, ZHAO Xiu-ge, WANG Xian-liang, WANG Bei-bei, NIE Jing, ZHANG Jin-liang
2011, 1(3): 210-214. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.03.034
Abstract(4494) PDF(772KB)(1594)
With the increasing proportion of environmental pollution factors in all the risk factors to human health and more and more frequent appearance of various environmental health damage incidents, environmental health problems in China had been paid much attention to by the governments and researchers. However, there lacked a completed environmental health standard framework, which could not satisfy the requirements of environmental health situation. The environmental health situation in the Twelfth Five-Year Plan period (2011-2015) was analyzed and the suggestions on the environmental health framework and priority standards list presented, based on an analysis of current standards and overseas experiences. The results showed that there should be four layers of environmental health standards, i.e. that of limits, assessment methods, management norms as well as related basic standards. The contents should cover the fields of environmental health survey, environmental health risk assessment and environmental health risk management. During the Twelfth Five-Year Plan period, environmental health survey and risk assessment guidelines and related basic standards should be initiated as priorities.
Design of the Pollutant Emission Standard System of China in Context of Circular Economy
SONG Guo-jun, HAN Yun-lei, WANG Chen, LI Yan-xia
2011, 1(3): 215-220. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.03.035
Abstract(4597) PDF(913KB)(1144)
Based on the principle of circular economy and marginal cost emission control, a framework of pollutant emission standard system including the control cost, extent and speed elements was brought forward. The system covered the whole pollutant life cycle and was composed of four parts, i.e. environmental protection technical policy for raw materials, environmental protection technical policy for production, end-of-pipe treatment policy and emission standards, and technical policy for waste disposal. The individual control extents of the four sub-policies depended on marginal control costs, with preferential implementation for lower cost control links. The emission standards would be graded based on the technical advanced degrees, which could promote continuous improvement for environmental technology and provide correct predications to the society. By establishment of the standard development and updating mechanism, the emission standard system could identify automatically the priorities of implementation fields and thus be optimized and adjusted by itself at an appropriate speed.
Study on Emission Standard System of VOCs from the Use of Organic Solvents in Industries
JIANG Mei, ZHANG Guo-ning, ZOU Lan, WEI Yu-xia, ZHANG Ming-hui
2011, 1(3): 221-225. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.03.036
Abstract(4195) PDF(613KB)(1650)
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) will be controlled in key areas and key industries in the Twelfth Five-Year Plan period (2011-2015) in China, so it is urgently necessary to establish relevant VOCs emission control standard system. The use of organic solvents is one of the main sources of VOCs emissions. By analyzing the pollution characteristics of VOCs from the use of organic solvents in typical industries, a framework of VOCs emission control standard system was proposed, which was composed of three parts, i.e. general standards, process standards and industry standards. There were 14 standards in the standard system, of which 1 was existing, 7 were formulating and 6 were new.
The Control Requirements and Monitoring Methods for Mercury Emission in Coal-fired Power Plants
LI Hui, WANG Qiang, ZHU Fa-hua
2011, 1(3): 226-231. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.03.037
Abstract(5322) PDF(821KB)(1624)
The effect and harm of mercury to the environment and human health, as well as the mechanism of mercury generation and emission in coal-fired power plants, were introduced. The related policy and standards in China and in developed countries were compared, and the main monitoring methods for mercury in flue gas focused. The relatively mature monitoring methods included Ontario Hydro Method (OHM), 30A Method and 30B Method which were developed by US EPA. Combined with the monitoring experiences in China, it was suggested that the standard monitoring methods and equipments should be developed for mercury emission in coal-fired power plants by referring to the experience of developed countries, and the reduction targets and emission standards be formulated based on the emission monitoring data all over the country.
Study of On-board Testing Methods for In-use Compliance of Heavy-duty Vehicles
GUO Xing, HU Jing-nan, BAO Xiao-feng, LI Zhen-hua, WU Ye, YANG Hong-qiang, SHUAI Shi-jin
2011, 1(3): 232-236. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.03.038
Abstract(4060) PDF(634KB)(1252)
Since the enforcement of China 1 emission standards in 2000, vehicle emission regulations are getting more and more stringent to enhance the pollution control. In-use compliance (IUC) is an important part of the vehicle emission control, and it will be enforced for the heavy-duty vehicles with the China 4 emission standards. Studies on the IUC of heavy-duty vehicles have just begun in China; and there are shortcomings in the operation and effectiveness of engine dynamometer test. The research and enforcement progress of the on-board testing methods for IUC of heavy-duty vehicles in European Union and the United States was introduced, as well as some preliminary studies carried out in China, which could be reference for the enhancement of China’s IUC program of heavy-duty vehicles. In addition, the portable emissions measurement system (PEMS) for on-board test was introduced briefly.
Study on Emission Reduction Effect of Motor Vehicle Emission Standards in China
JI Liang, YUAN Ying, LI Gang, WU Xue-fang
2011, 1(3): 237-242. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.03.039
Abstract(4736) PDF(764KB)(1839)
The rapid development of automotive industry and the extraordinary growth of the vehicle population had brought about serious pollution problems in China. Through timely introduction of stricter emission standards for motor vehicles, vehicle emissions has decreased remarkably in China. Since implementation of China I emission standards, the emissions from each new vehicle had been reduced by 57%-96%. This has resulted in the decrease of average emission factors for the overall in-use vehicles, the effective control of the total emissions from motor vehicles and the improvement of the air quality in cities. Through implementation of strict vehicle emission standards in continual phases, emissions shows a downward trend, and a positive outcome of the total emission reduction is achieved.
Discussion on the Demand of Establishing PM2.5 Standardsin in Jiangsu Province
ZHOU Ling-jun, XIA Si-jia, JIANG Wei-li
2011, 1(3): 243-248. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.03.040
Abstract(4568) PDF(915KB)(1656)
Current ambient air quality assessment system could not comprehensively reflect the pollution status of complex air pollution in Jiangsu Province and had big disparity with the public perception, in which SO2, NO2 and PM10 were targeted for control as the major pollutants. By analyzing the PM2.5 pollution status and sources in Jiangsu Province, summarizing the results of epidemiological and toxicological studies on the effect of ambient air PM2.5 on human health, and combing the analysis of foreign ambient air quality standards for PM2.5, it was suggested to involve PM2.5 in the ambient air quality index system in Jiangsu, and to establish ambient air quality standards for PM2.5 suitable to the air pollution characteristics as well as the economic and technological level of Jiangsu Province.
Analysis of Air Quality Over China and Suggestions on Air Quality Daily Report Improvement
MENG Xiao-yan, WANG Rui-bin, DU Li, LI Jian-jun, XIE Shu-yan, ZHENG Hao-hao
2011, 1(3): 249-254. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.03.041
Abstract(4264) PDF(699KB)(1464)
Based on China's air quality condition analysis, it was shown that while the control of SO2 and PM10 had achieved positive progress, complex atmospheric pollution problems such as haze, photochemical pollution had been increased. The existing API system of air quality daily report had shown its limitations. Also, based on the data collected from the monitoring sites in the cities of Tianjin, Shanghai, Chongqing, Guangzhou and Ningbo, the impacts of adding different monitoring factors into the existing air quality daily report system on the fine days were evaluated using three estimation programs. It was thus proposed that monitoring factors such as O3 and PM2.5 should be added to the existing air quality daily report system.
The Economic Analysis for the Development of Water Quality Standard
HUO Shou-liang, NIU Meng, XI Bei-dou, CHEN Yan-qing, CHEN Qi, ZHANG Yu-xiu, SU Jing, SUN Wen-chun
2011, 1(3): 255-259. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.03.042
Abstract(4090) PDF(732KB)(1070)
In USA, there is a set of complete economic analysis procedures to help states and tribes set and revise water quality standards. A systematic analysis on the procedures and related indices would be useful for improving the economic analysis in development of water quality standards and for settling economically feasible water quality standards in China. The economic analysis procedures and related financial indices were focused on and its applications in antidegradation policy introduced. Based on current situations of water environmental management in China, related idea of economic analysis for water quality standard development was proposed.
Research on the Possibility of Using Salinity as Entrophication Criteria Indicator of Saline Lakes
ZHANG Ya-li, XI Bei-dou, XU Qiu-jin
2011, 1(3): 260-263. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.03.043
Abstract(4687) PDF(584KB)(1517)
Saline lakes covered half of the total lake area in China and some of them were already in the state of eutrophication. Aiming at salinity, which is the characteristic physical and chemical factor of water environment, the relationship between salinity and primary productivity in lakes was systematically formulated. The research suggested the potential role of salinity as limiting briny biologic community. It not only impacts the growth and metabolism, physico-chemical constituent and nutrient (nitrogen, phosphorus) absorption, but also affects protein expression level, antioxidant enzyme activity and toxin production, etc. Therefore, it was suggested that, in the study of saline lake eutrophication, the relationships between salinity, algae and nutrient (nitrogen, phosphorus) should be further analyzed through experimental researches and statistical analysis, so as to further explore the possibility of bringing salinity into the nutrient criteria system of saline lakes.
Contaminants of Concern Screening Method in Establishing Screening Levels for Soil Risk Assessment of Contaminated Sites
ZHOU You-ya, YAN Zeng-guang, ZHOU Guang-hui, CAO Yun-zhe, HOU Hong, BAI Li-ping, LI Fa-sheng
2011, 1(3): 264-269. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.03.044
Abstract(6895) PDF(835KB)(2099)
With the rapid economic development and large-scale urbanization, contaminated sites resulted from dismissed enterprises have been a serious problem in China. The reuse of these contaminated sites may pose threat to human health and local ecosystem if without contamination investigation, risk assessment and remediation. The promulgation of a series of environmental assessment guidelines and standards, including those for site environmental assessment and soil screening levels, would greatly promote the management of contaminated sites. Soil pollution was a global environmental issue and many countries and regions had developed soil screening levels or cleanup objectives. The screening of contaminants of concern (COC) was the principal point of developing soil screening levels. The experience in screening COC during establishing screening levels for soil risk assessment of contaminated sites in Beijing was introduced, which could provide reference for other cities and regions in determining COC.
Directions for Development of Landfill Leachate Treatment Technologies under the New Standard in China
DAI Jin-guo, SONG Qian-wu, ZHANG Yue, QIN Qi
2011, 1(3): 270-274. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.03.045
Abstract(6717) PDF(699KB)(2342)
Implementation of the new discharge standard for landfill leachate makes most landfill leachate projects in China face technical upgrade. The status of leachate treatment technologies and the main problems were analyzed. The development directions of different technology links were discussed on the base of the main engineering technical route of ’pre-treatment +biological treatment + advanced treatment’. It was put forward that the upgrading of existing technologies, and development and industrial application of new technologies were key areas for landfill leachate treatment technologies development. In these areas, the development and application of advanced oxidation technologies based on hydroxyl radical was an important research direction. Also an efficient integration between advanced oxidation processes and biochemical processes was a significant direction of technology development. The research results provided references for landfill leachate renovations and new building landfill leachate projects to meet the new standards.
Evaluation on Implementation of China's Emission Standards
SONG Guo-jun, HAN Yun-lei, HE Ya-qi, WANG Chen
2011, 1(3): 275-280. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.03.046
Abstract(4439) PDF(882KB)(1487)
Emission standards implementation was a process that the relevant government departments urged the dischargers to carry out emission standards to achieve the objectives of 'compliance emission'. The implementation of China’s emission standards had realized the status of initial compliance emission and promoted the environmental protection and technology advancement in some degree. However, it still had some problems, for instance, the emission monitoring schemes could not fully judge the dischargers’ reaching the status of 'continuous compliance emission'; indemnificatory of implementation means was not strong enough; implementation efficiency was low, evaluation and update mechanism were lack. It was recommended that corresponding emission monitoring schemes should be designed to achieve the status of 'continuous compliance emission', permit system be completed to guarantee effective implementation of emission standards, and the mechanisms of assessment and update of emission standards be established to promote the pollution control technology advancement timely and reasonably.