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    Study on Assessment of Persistent, Bioaccumulation and Toxic Chemicals in China
    WANG Hong YANG Ni-yun YAN Zhen-guang YU Ruo-zhen WANG Yi-zhe LIU Zheng-tao
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2011, 1 (5): 414-419.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.05.069
    Abstract7536)      PDF(pc) (819KB)(1451)      
    On the basis of a comprehensive analysis of the progress of identification and risk management of persistent, bioaccumulation and toxic (PBT) chemicals in USA, Canada, UK and EU, etc., the techniques, methodologies and management countermeasures for PBT assessment and control in China were discussed. The suggestion on risk management strategic objectives and environmental managerial identification criteria of PBT chemicals in China were proposed and assessment method of PBT chemicals discussed.
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    Cited: Baidu(2)
    Research on Decomposition of Carbon Dioxide by High Frequency Dielectric Barrier Discharge
    ZHANG Fan,WANG Hong-chang, SHI Ying-jie, WANG Hong-mei, JING Peng, REN Hong-yan
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2011, 1 (1): 33-37.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.01.006
    Abstract6779)      PDF(pc) (657KB)(1583)      
    The greenhouse effect as well as its induced global warming is one of important global environmental issues. To control greenhouse gas CO2, the decomposition of CO2 by high frequency dielectric barrier discharge was studied. The effect of applied voltage, frequency, cooling method and CO2 concentration on the decomposition characteristic of CO2 was investigated. The results showed that the decomposition of CO2 could be enhanced by increasing applied voltage or frequency within limits. Circulated water cooling or air cooling to reactor was helpful to decomposition of CO2 for controlling the secondary reaction. Although decreasing the CO2 concentration by mixing it with inert gases could increase the decomposition of CO2, the energy efficiency reduced.
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    Cited: Baidu(2)
    Comparison of the Absorption and Desorption Characters of Activated Carbon Fiber and Granular Activated Carbon on Benzene, Toluene and Xylene Mixed Gas
    ZHANG Zhi-hong CHEN Ning YE Cui-ping XIE Hua-qing DAI Run-sheng
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2011, 1 (2): 162-167.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.02.027
    Abstract6636)      PDF(pc) (664KB)(2617)      
    The atmospheric pollution and indoor environment pollution generated from benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) of widely used in paint and coating had been widely concerned with. Adsorption and recycling treatment technologies as effective means of pollution control and solvent recovery were still the research focus. To explore simple, low-energy consuming and easy-to-disseminate test means for evaluating absorption and regeneration performance of adsorption materials was in favour of their industrial applications and dissemination in indoor air cleansing. Based on the simple, low-energy consuming and easy-to-disseminate principle, the experiment used self-made glass adsorption tube to perform tube adsorption and thermal desorption, and to carry out comparative tests on desorption and regeneration characters of BTX mixture with Viscose-based activated carbon fiber (VACF) and Granular coconut-shell activated carbon (GAC) as the adsorptive material, in combination with the analysis of thermal desorption and gas chromatography. The results showed that under room temperature, the adsorption rate of VACF was much better than that of GAC, with the usage of VACF less than that of GAC. Under constant temperature 120 ℃ and nitrogen purge rate of 50mL/min, the VACF showed a superior desorption rate with Benzene and Toluene than GAC. Moreover, it showed a lower desorption rate of Xylene from VACF than that from GAC.
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    Whole-Process Control Techniques and Practices for Toxic Organics in Industrial Wastewaters
    ZHOU Yue-Xi, SONG Yu-Dong, JIANG Jin-Yuan, XI Hong-Bo, LAI Bo
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2011, 1 (1): 7-14.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.01.002
    Abstract6294)      PDF(pc) (1187KB)(1963)      
    Reduction of toxic organics in industrial wastewater was one of the important links to build watershed quality target management system which considered human health and hydroecology safe as the water environmental targets. By learning from foreign experience and considering the actual situation of China, a whole-process technological strategy for toxic organic pollution control, based on the optimization of production and pollution control as an integrated system, was proposed against the disadvantages of traditional end-of-pipe solution. Analysis and characterization of organic pollutants in the wastewater were the base for the whole-process control. Improving of production process and management practice was used to reduce the amount of toxic organics discharged into wastewater. Then water-quality-based treatment processes were selected for wastewater streams with different characterization. Organic recovery and enhanced-degradation techniques were used for the pretreatment of wastewater. High-efficiency biological processes were used for biodegradation of toxic organics and the advanced treatment was used for further removal of toxic organics. For large-scale industrial complex, an optimization approach involving the inner-workshop, inter-workshop and between workshops and wastewater treatment plant, was proposed for resource conservation and high-efficient elimination of toxic organics. Establishment of technical systems and discharge standards for toxic organic elimination could promote the development and application of advanced technologies greatly.
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    Cited: Baidu(12)
    Contaminants of Concern Screening Method in Establishing Screening Levels for Soil Risk Assessment of Contaminated Sites
    ZHOU You-ya YAN Zeng-guang ZHOU Guang-hui CAO Yun-zhe HOU Hong BAI Li-ping LI Fa-sheng
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2011, 1 (3): 264-269.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.03.044
    Abstract6171)      PDF(pc) (836KB)(1879)      
    With the rapid economic development and large-scale urbanization, contaminated sites resulted from dismissed enterprises have been a serious problem in China. The reuse of these contaminated sites may pose threat to human health and local ecosystem if without contamination investigation, risk assessment and remediation. The promulgation of a series of environmental assessment guidelines and standards, including those for site environmental assessment and soil screening levels, would greatly promote the management of contaminated sites. Soil pollution was a global environmental issue and many countries and regions had developed soil screening levels or cleanup objectives. The screening of contaminants of concern (COC) was the principal point of developing soil screening levels. The experience in screening COC during establishing screening levels for soil risk assessment of contaminated sites in Beijing was introduced, which could provide reference for other cities and regions in determining COC.
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    Cited: Baidu(6)
    Regional Ecological Risk Assessment and Its Utilization in Strategic Environmental Assessment
    DUAN Fei-Zhou, REN Jing-Ming
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2011, 1 (1): 72-74.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.01.012
    Abstract6168)      PDF(pc) (502KB)(1406)      
    Regional ecological risk assessment (ERA) was used to forecast and evaluate unfavorable ecological environment evolution trend with long time scale, large spatial scale, multi-medium source and complex-type pollution. As an efficient tool for sustainable environmental management, regional ERA had become a hot field in environmental science and environmental protection. Strategic environmental Assessment (SEA) usually, from the viewpoint of environmental management, carried out forecast and evaluation of the potential environmental effects caused by government decisions and development activities. It focused on long-term and accumulative environmental effects in key ecosystem functional units and sensitive environmental receptors and the long- and medium-term ecological risks. Regional ERA and SEA had strong consistency in their aims, targets and evaluation scales. Regional ERA could be important methodology and content of SEA. As the ecosystem complexity and ecological balance changes determined the complexity and uncertainty in the process of ecological assessment, especially when it was not enough for the study of the non-chemical risk sources, the research on high levels, e.g. community and ecosystem, of risk assessment, including assessment terminal choice and ecological effect quantitative evaluation method, should be strengthened.
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    Application of High Frequency Power Supply for ESP in the Power Industry of China and Its Potential for Energy Saving and Emissions Reducing
    ZHU Fa-Hua, LI Hui, WANG Qiang
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2011, 1 (1): 26-32.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.01.005
    Abstract6047)      PDF(pc) (982KB)(1461)      
    The mechanism for energy saving and emissions reducing of High Frequency Power Supply for ESP was analyzed. Its research and application at home and abroad were introduced, and its advantages compared with traditional power supply were pointed out. As one case, the dust-collector retrofit of Unit 8 of Shanghai Waigaoqiao Power Plant was studies for investigating the energy saving and emissions reducing effect. During daily operation after the retrofit of applying High Frequency Power Supply for ESP, the dust emissions decreased by 59.5%, from 42 mg/m3 to 17 mg/m3, and the energy consumption decreased by 71.7%. According to this application case and the successful experience in coal-fired units of other power plants, the potential of energy saving and emissions reducing in the power industry of China was analyzed. On the base of related statistical data from the power industry in 2009, if all the ESP adopted the High Frequency Power Supply, the electricity consumption of the ESP would decrease by 3.15 billion kW·h, equal to saving 1.077 million tons equivalent coal, and the total dust, SO2, NOx, CO2 emissions would decrease by 1.2-2.1 million tons, 10.7 thousand tons, 6.462-9.693 thousand tons, 3.10 million tons ,respectively.
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    Cited: Baidu(19)
    Directions for Development of Landfill Leachate Treatment Technologies under the New Standard in China
    DAI Jin-guo SONG Qian-wu ZHANG Yue QIN Qi
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2011, 1 (3): 270-274.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.03.045
    Abstract6035)      PDF(pc) (699KB)(2074)      
    Implementation of the new discharge standard for landfill leachate makes most landfill leachate projects in China face technical upgrade. The status of leachate treatment technologies and the main problems were analyzed. The development directions of different technology links were discussed on the base of the main engineering technical route of ’pre-treatment +biological treatment + advanced treatment’. It was put forward that the upgrading of existing technologies, and development and industrial application of new technologies were key areas for landfill leachate treatment technologies development. In these areas, the development and application of advanced oxidation technologies based on hydroxyl radical was an important research direction. Also an efficient integration between advanced oxidation processes and biochemical processes was a significant direction of technology development. The research results provided references for landfill leachate renovations and new building landfill leachate projects to meet the new standards.
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    Cited: Baidu(18)
    Treatment Effect of Microbubble Aeration Technology on Black-odor River Water 
    HONG Tao, YE Chun, LI Chun-Hua, ZHANG Bao-Jun, ZHOU Lei
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2011, 1 (1): 20-25.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.01.004
    Abstract5988)      PDF(pc) (768KB)(1387)      
    A microbubble generator produced domestically was used to treat the black-odor river water. A comparison study on treatment efficiency between the microbubble aeration and conventional aeration was carried out. Some important water quality indicators, including odorous chemicals (Geosmin and 2-MIB), CODCr, NH3-N, TP, color and turbidity were monitored during the experimental period. The results showed that microbubble generator produced higher DO concentration than conventional aeration under the same gas flow, and DO level produced by the former one was 9.87 mg/L in 60 min but only 6.54 mg/L in 100 min by the latter. During the experimental period, microbubble aeration obtained or was greatly closed to its highest removal rates of different pollutants at 60-80 min, while conventional aeration did not obtained or was greatly close to its highest removal rates until 80min or even later. Additionally, the removal rates of CODCr, NH3-N, Geosmin and 2-MIB coming from microbubble technology were 12%, 10%, 16% and 12% higher than those from the conventional aeration technology, respectively. The color and turbidity values increased at the beginning period because of the strong stirring from bubbles, and did not recover to their initial level until 60-80 min.
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    Study on the Treatment of Wastewater Containing High-concentration Ammonia Nitrogen with Aerobic Denitrifying Bacteria
    JIU Wei-jing WANG Ping YUE Jian-wei
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2011, 1 (2): 111-117.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.02.019
    Abstract5907)      PDF(pc) (912KB)(1797)      
    The treatment of simulated wastewater containing high-concentration (up to 700 mg/L) ammonia nitrogen with heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic strains in Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) was studied. Four influencing factors of SBR including the temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration, pH and hydraulic retention time were studied and the optimal operating conditions obtained. The results indicated that the efficiency of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification by seeding sludge and dominant bacteria could be enhanced after cultured for forty-five operational cycles in SBR. Under the optimal conditions of temperature 23~25 ℃, dissolved oxygen concentration 2 mg/L, pH 6.8-8.0 and hydraulic retention time 78 h, when the chemical oxygen demand was 2 500 mg/L and the ammonia nitrogen was 700 mg/L in the influent, the chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency could reach 88%-93%, while the ammonia nitrogen and total nitrogen removal efficiency could achieve as high as 98%~99% and 86%-93% respectively.
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    Cited: Baidu(7)
    Study on the Pretreatment and Copper Recovery from Berberine Wastewater Containing Copper by Fe-C Micro-electrolysis
    XIAO Hong-Kang, XIAO Shu-Hu, SONG Yong-Hui, ZENG Ping, SHAO Hong, ZHANG Guo-Fang, LI Hui
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2011, 1 (1): 15-19.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.01.003
    Abstract5880)      PDF(pc) (558KB)(1449)      
    Fe-C micro-electrolysis was applied to perform pretreatment of berberine pharmaceutical wastewater containing high concentration of Cu2+. The effects of reaction time, iron/carbon dosages and initial pH on the pretreatment results were investigated by single factor experiments, and the process of copper recovery was designed. The results showed that while treating the wastewater with initial concentration of Cu2+ 20 000 mg/L and berberine content of 1 700-1 900 mg/L, the berberine removal efficiency was above 70% and copper removal efficiency reached 99.9% with less than 20 mg/L Cu2+ remaining in the effluent and 18-19 kilograms of copper could be recovered by treatment one ton of such wastewater, under the optimized conditions of pH 2.0-3.0, reaction time 90min and the dosages of iron and carbon 25 and 30 g/L, respectively. The process was easily controlled and effective. It has laid foundation for larger scale treatment of berberine wastewater containing high concentration of Cu2+.
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    Cited: Baidu(6)
    Environmental Industry of the United States: Policy Analysis and Lessons Learnt
    LIU Jia, QIN Hu
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2011, 1 (1): 87-92.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.01.015
    Abstract5799)      PDF(pc) (1019KB)(2052)      
    The United States takes a significant position in global environmental industry. The flourish of US environmental industry attributes to its effective industrial policies and incentives that, to a large extent, impose an important effect on many countries. The classification and development status of US environmental industry were introduced, and the framework of its environmental industry analyzed from the aspects of environmental regulation, technological innovation, commercialization, financial and tax incentives, and trade. Finally, combined with an analysis of the experiences and lessons of the development of US environmental industry, some policy suggestions on future development of the environmental industry in China were proposed.
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    Cited: Baidu(5)
    Evaluation and Management Methods for Toxicity Control of Industrial Wastewater
    HU Hong-Ying, WU Qian-Yuan, YANG Yang, WANG Hua-Tong
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2011, 1 (1): 46-51.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.01.008
    Abstract5794)      PDF(pc) (824KB)(1777)      
    Evaluation and control of toxic pollutants in industrial wastewater is an import issue in the filed of water environmental pollution control. Only measuring quantitative integrated indexes such as CODCr,BOD5 is not sufficient for evaluating the safety of wastewater. Industrial wastewater water quality indexes including routine water quality indexes, bio-toxicity indexes and chemical characteristic indexes were proposed. Bio-toxicity tests and their application in industrial wastewater evaluation were discussed. The necessity and importance to carry out wastewater safety management using integrated bio-toxicity method was pointed out. It is suggested that the application of Daphnia toxicity tests for industrial wastewater safety evaluation should be the top choice in China. In addition, the progress of wastewater bio-toxicity control criteria at home and abroad was summarized, and it was pointed out that the bio-toxicity control index and toxicity discharge criteria for industrial wastewater which was suitable for China should be established according to water environmental creature type, toxic characteristic of industrial wastewater pollutants and control technology level.
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    Cited: Baidu(23)
    Factors Analysis of Gas Lift Height from Cooling Tower
    DING Feng LI Shi-bei XING Ke-jia
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2011, 1 (2): 173-180.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674–991X.2011.02.029
    Abstract5743)      PDF(pc) (815KB)(1835)      
    Based on the atmospheric dispersion model from VDI3784 guidelines of Germany, the influencing factors of plume rising height from Cooling Tower according to the meteorological and source emission parameters were analyzed. The results showed that compared to the wind speed, atmospheric stability had more important influence on the plume rising height. With the stability changing from strong unstabitily (A class) to strong stabitily (F class), the plume rising height gradually decreased, and the average range was 764 meters. With the wind speed changing from small calm wind (1 m/s) to the strong wind (20 m/s), the average plume rising height reduced 509 meters. The different source parameters’ effect on the maximum rising height was very small, and the rising height was likely to reach the maximum in certain weather conditions. But the effects of source emission parameters on the average rising height and minimum height were more obvious. The most influential parameters were temperature and gas flow rate, and the average range was 418 meters and 213 meters, respectively. But the variation effect of relative humidity and liquid water content in the flue gas on the average rising height was not significant.
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    Cited: Baidu(6)
    Using Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) for Continuous Emission Monitoring and Process Gases
    SVANTE Wallin, HUANG Zhao-Kai, FAN Hai-Hua
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2011, 1 (1): 38-45.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.01.007
    Abstract5681)      PDF(pc) (1206KB)(1992)      
    The principle and system design of DOAS indicated the system could monitor multi-gas from UV wavelength to IR wavelength. After a series of test and identification from TüV, the DOAS system had proven to have a good performance on continuous emission monitoring in stationary pollution source and waste incineration, especially to monitor Hg, HCl, NH3 and HF. The DOAS system could monitor different concentrations of process gas with several paths using one analyzer and work well where was corrosive, high temperature and high level dust,which made it possible to monitor progress gases. The system also could monitor different concentrations of gases in different places. No extract sample system, faster response speed, multi-component and multi-path monitoring by one analyzer laid foundation for the DOAS a good competition on the market.
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    Cited: Baidu(3)
    Thinking about the Twelfth Five-Year Planning of Air Pollutants Control for China's Coal-fired Power Plant
    WANG Zhi-Han, PAN Li, ZHANG Jing-Jie, YANG Fan
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2011, 1 (1): 63-71.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.01.011
    Abstract5674)      PDF(pc) (1468KB)(3644)      
    During the Eleventh Five-Year Plan period, great achievements of coal-fired power plant air pollution control in China's power industry, which had reached the world advanced level, had been made. Despite more than 10 times growth of thermal power installed capacity during the period, dust emissions remained a slight decrease; sulfur dioxide control made remarkable achievements, having made a decisive contribution to the national energy conservation and emission reduction targets; nitrogen oxide control made preliminary outcomes and flue gas denitrification projects had been in construction. During the Twelfth Five-Year Plan period, the main tasks of air pollution control in power industry will turn to nitrogen oxide control. In the planning, some principles should be considered as follows: source control and end-of-pipe treatment should be combined; key pollutants control and the best availability technologies should be insisted as a guide; key control indexes should be considered at different levels and written into national planning, national environmental protection planning and power industry environmental protection planning. In respect of air pollution control measures, it is necessary to change development mode of power, strengthen technical guidance and basic work, adhere to the technology and management innovation, and improve the management level. Key words:coal-fired power plant;air pollutant;Twelfth Five-Year Plan
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    Cited: Baidu(24)
    Bacterial Diversity of the Combined Ozonation-ASBR/SBR Sludge Reduction with Simultaneous Nitrogen and Phosphorus
    ZHAO Lin-lin WANG Hai-yan YANG Hui-fen HE Zan ZHOU Yue-xi ZHANG Le PANG Zhao-hui
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2011, 1 (2): 123-130.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674–991X.2011.02.021
    Abstract5664)      PDF(pc) (1018KB)(1699)      
    The bacterial diversity in the ASBR and SBR of the combined process, i.e. combined ozonation-ASBR/SBR sludge reduction with simultaneous nitrogen and phosphorus removal process was studied by molecular biological PCR-DGGE method before and after sludge reduction. The results indicated that the dominant bacterial communities in the ASBR were Firmicutes bacterium, β-proteobacterium, γ-proteobacterium and Bacteroidetes bacterium. The bacterial richness in SBR after sludge reduction was slightly increased compared with that before sludge reduction, but with high similarity (85%). The dominant bacteria diversity of SBR was not influenced significantly by the ozone dosage for sludge reduction. There were Firmicutes bacterium, Candidate division TM7, ammonia-oxidizing bacterium, Bacteroidetes bacterium, β-proteobacterium, Denitrifying bacterium, Pseudomonas sp and Nitrosococcus halophilus Nc4 in SBR both before and after sludge reduction. However, the number of Bacteroidetes bacterium, β-proteobacterium, Denitrifying bacterium and Nitrosococcus halophilus Nc4 in SBR after sludge reduction was slightly higher than that before sludge reduction.
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    New Development of Environmental Engineering and Technical Innovation Based on Ecological Civilization Viewpoint
    MENG Wei, FU Ze-qiang
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2011, 1 (1): 1-6.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.01.001
    Abstract5627)      PDF(pc) (953KB)(1790)      
    The connotation of ecological civilization was dissected from the perspective of productive forces and production relations. The causes of eco-environmental problems were explored and the relationships among technology, economy and environment analyzed based on the evolution of human civilization. The significance of technological innovation and advancement in ecological civilization construction was discussed. The research shows that science and technology are important driving forces on human civilization evolution, but also the roots of the global and regional eco-environmental problems. The core of ecological civilization is the harmonious coexistence between human and nature. With the connotation in conformity with that of the Scientific Outlook of Development, ecological civilization in nature is the adjustment and reconstruction of the relationship between human and nature which is based on modern industrial civilization. It builds resources-saving and environmental-friendly production models and green consumption patterns in the scale of sustainable development of earth ecosystems and its goal is to achieve the harmony between environmental and economic development, and the integration between human and nature. The construction of ecological civilization depends on green technology revolution, and the environmental engineering and technical innovation are the important impetus on it. Finally, aiming at the environmental strategic demands and the increasingly deteriorative environmental problems in China, six basic principles and six key fields were proposed for the future development of environmental engineering and technical innovation.
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    Cited: Baidu(1)
    Performance Assessment of Sector-Integrate Eco-Industrial Parks
    QIAO Qi
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2011, 1 (1): 82-86.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.01.014
    Abstract5555)      PDF(pc) (686KB)(1655)      
    With the introduction of the development of industrial parks (IP) in China, it was pointed out that there were some problems and limitations for the IP’s improvement in the future. It should be the prior way for some IPs in China to carry out the construction of eco-industrial parks (EIP) in their new stages of development and in solving the problems of economical intensive land use and natural resources constraints. Based on the difference of sectoral types and organizational structures, the EIPs are classified into sector-integrate EIP, sector-specific EIP and Venous EIP. The construction status of EIPs in China as well as the situation of related standard development was introduced. Compared with the standard for the sector-integrate EIPs developed by the Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP), the compliance status of individual indicators, including economic development, mass minimization and recycling and pollutant control ones, of the EIPs under construction was analyzed in 2006-2008. It is shown that despite the limit of development stage of the EIPs, the compliance rates of indicators of the sector-integrate EIPs in China develop in fluctuation and show a rising trend in general.
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    Current Status and Directions for Development of Cleaner Production Technology of Electrolytic Manganese Metal Industry in China
    DUAN Ning, DAN Zhi-Gang, SONG Dan-Na
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2011, 1 (1): 75-81.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.01.013
    Abstract5492)      PDF(pc) (1095KB)(2501)      
    No manganese no steel. Especially the coming out of 200 series stainless steel technology promoted the electrolytic manganese metal industry to rapidly become a big industry. Since this century, China has become the world largest producer and consumer of electrolytic manganese metal. Current capacity and technology level of the industry in China was introduced, the key limiting factors of development of the industry analyzed, its newest trends for cleaner production technology R&D presented, and its directions of R&D put forward.
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    Cited: Baidu(28)
    High-temperature Enhanced Electrochemical Treatment of Fosfomycin Sodium Pharmaceutical Wastewater
    XIAO Hong-kang XIAO Shu-hu SONG Yong-hui ZHANG Guo-fang ZENG Ping SHAO Hong LI Hui
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2011, 1 (2): 106-110.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.02.018
    Abstract5403)      PDF(pc) (581KB)(1722)      
    The effect of electrochemical treatment for fosfomycin sodium pharmaceutical wastewater using RuO2/Ti as anode was investigated. The influences of temperature, NaCl concentration, initial pH and electric current on the degradation of CODCr and organic phosphorus were studied in details. The results showed that under the conditions of reaction temperature 80 ℃, concentration of NaCl 0.2 mol/L, initial pH 3.42 and electric current 4.0 A, the concentration of CODCr and organic phosphorus could degrade from 12 086 and 1 375 mg/L to 4 278 and 502 mg/L, with the removal rates of CODCr and organic phosphorus being over 64.7% and 63.5%, respectively. The biodegradability of wastewater was improved significantly with the BOD5/CODCr ratio increasing from 0.19 to 0.34.
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    Cited: Baidu(6)
    UV-assisted Electrochemical Treatment of Landfill Leachate in a Continuous Flow Reactor
    XIAO Shu-hu SONG Yong-hui WAN Dong-jin ZHAO Xu XIAO Hong-kang
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2011, 1 (2): 95-100.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.02.016
    Abstract5154)      PDF(pc) (757KB)(1547)      
    A magnified continuous-flow integrated reactor was developed and UV-assisted electrochemical (UAE) oxidation was adopted to treat leachate from a municipal sanitary landfill after biological process. The effects of hydraulic retention time and applied electric current density on the removal of CODCr and NH3-N were investigated, and UAE process and single electrochemical process compared to observe the synergetic effect. Based on analysis of UV-vis spectra (200~500 nm) and GC/MS, it was found that many small organic molecules such as organic carboxylic acids were generated in the process, which could be responsible for the improvement of biodegradability. The results showed that UAE process could treat landfill leachate effectively. Without pH adjustment and electrolyte addition, 74.3% of CODCr and 94.9% of NH3-N could be degraded in the UAE process at a retention time of 85 min and electric current density of 21.2 mA/cm2. Simultaneously, the BOD5/CODCr of leachate could reach at about 0.6, and its biodegradability increased by about 12 times.
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    Cited: Baidu(4)
    Research on Methane Oxidation Capacity of Landfills Cover Materials and its Impact Factors
    YUE Bo, LIN Ye, WANG Qi, HUANG Ze-Chun, HUANG Qi-Fei, YANG Xue, ZHANG Wei
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2011, 1 (1): 57-62.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.01.010
    Abstract5140)      PDF(pc) (752KB)(1843)      
    Through indoor simulation experiments, the methane oxidation properties of typical landfill cover materials were compared, and the impacts of cultivation temperature, moisture content, and inoculation measures on the methane oxidation performance were further analyzed. The results showed that the order of methane oxidation capacity was: aged refuse > aged cover soil > compost > new cover soil. Methane oxidation rate of cover materials was dramatically affected by moisture content, the degree of which was related with the physical properties of tested materials, and the optimum moisture content was about 25%. Meanwhile, with temperature rising, methane oxidation rate of tested materials increased first and then decreased, and the best cultivation temperature was about 25 ℃. In addition, the methane oxidation rate increased significantly after the new cover soil was inoculated with aged refuse, and the inoculation proportion was recommended as 1:10 (aged refuse : new cover soil, m/m).
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    Comparison of the Air Pollutant Emission Standards of Coal-fired Power Plants between China, the United States and European Union
    SHENG Qing WU Xue-fang LI Xiao-qian WANG Zong-shuang WANG Zhan-shan ZHAO Guo-hua
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2011, 1 (6): 512-516.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.06.085
    Abstract5135)      PDF(pc) (631KB)(1462)      
    It is an important measure of dealing with environmental pollution problems to scientifically develop pollutant emission standards. The United States, European Union and other developed countries have developed pollutant emission standards suitable for their national conditions and with multiple revisions. In order to learn from the successful experience of pollutant control on the power industry in the developed countries and develop reasonable air pollutant emission standard of thermal power in China, the control process of air pollutants such as SO2, NOx and particulate matters from coal-fired power plants and the current existing emission standards and control technologies in China, the US and EU were compared, the status of pollutant control of coal-fired thermal power in China analyzed, and some recommendations provided for the future development of China's coal-fired thermal power plants pollution control policy.
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    Cited: Baidu(5)
    Isolation, Identification and Characterization of Nitrobacteria for the Microbial Toxicity Testing System
    XIE Jia-Yin, WANG Ping, LI Han-Dong, LI Ji, LIU Xiu-Hua
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2011, 1 (1): 52-56.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.01.009
    Abstract5093)      PDF(pc) (617KB)(1510)      
    Four strains of high-efficiency nitrobacteria, F1, F4, Y2 and Z1, were isolated from one fishpond’s silt. The Sherlock microbial identification system (MIS) was used to perform the whole cellular fatty acid composition analysis and identification for the four strains, combined with physiological and biochemistry indexes analysis. They were preliminarily identified as Rhodococcus (F1 and F4), Pseudomonas (Y2) and Micrococcus (Z1). The test of nitrifying rate showed that the nitrifying rate of F1, F4, Y2 and Z1 reached 3.51, 3.43, 3.46 and 3.52 mg/(L·d), respectively. The four strains were mixed equally to form a bacterial complex and the orthogonal experiment under comprehensive cultivation conditions by changing cultivation conditions was carried out. The results showed that the highest NH4+-N conversion rate of 70.02% was obtained at 35℃, pH 8.5, with 20 mL medium content and 25% inoculum size. Factors affecting nitrification effectiveness were in the order of medium content > temperature > pH > inoculum size.
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    Cited: Baidu(3)
    Study on the Process of Roasting Vulcanized Molybdenum to Produce Molybdenum Oxide with Pure Oxygen in the Obturation Dry Condition
    TIAN Gang DU Ji-jun ZHANG Fan LIU Yu SHI Ying-jie
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2011, 1 (2): 157-161.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.02.026
    Abstract5085)      PDF(pc) (561KB)(1788)      
    Molybdenum oxide is an important raw material for steel and chemical industry. The conventional molybdenum oxide producing processes include reverberatory furnace roasting technology, rotary kiln roasting technology, multiple hearth furnace roasting technology, fluidized-bed roasting technology. In these conventional processes, the product quality was low with high concentration of SO2 (up to 2%) which was hard to be utilized and disposed, and could result in serious environmental pollution. An effective technology of roasting vulcanized molybdenum to produce molybdenum oxide with pure oxygen in the obturation dry condition was introduced, which could reduce the environmental pollution of SO2 and improve the quality of reaction product. Pure oxygen and molybdenum sulfide were roasted in the obturation dry reactor, with heating temperature less than 650 ℃ in the bottom part, the gas pressure in the reactor less than 0.4 MPa, the oxidizing reaction time between 35 and 50 minutes, and with the highest gas temperature 255 ℃.The results showed that the content of MoO3 in reaction product reached 93%, higher than that of the reaction product with the common productive technology (80%-85%), and the concentration of SO2 in flue gas was above 50% (in weight), thus having great practical value for utilization. The experiment proved that the new technology was feasible for MoO3 and SO2 recovery.
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    Cited: Baidu(1)
    The Control Requirements and Monitoring Methods for Mercury Emission in Coal-fired Power Plants
    LI Hui WANG Qiang ZHU Fa-hua
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2011, 1 (3): 226-231.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.03.037
    Abstract5017)      PDF(pc) (822KB)(1470)      
    The effect and harm of mercury to the environment and human health, as well as the mechanism of mercury generation and emission in coal-fired power plants, were introduced. The related policy and standards in China and in developed countries were compared, and the main monitoring methods for mercury in flue gas focused. The relatively mature monitoring methods included Ontario Hydro Method (OHM), 30A Method and 30B Method which were developed by US EPA. Combined with the monitoring experiences in China, it was suggested that the standard monitoring methods and equipments should be developed for mercury emission in coal-fired power plants by referring to the experience of developed countries, and the reduction targets and emission standards be formulated based on the emission monitoring data all over the country.
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    Cited: Baidu(18)
    Study on Current Status of Air Pollution Control for Coal-fired Power Plants in China
    ZHANG Jian-yu PAN Li YANG Fan LIU Jia
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2011, 1 (3): 185-196.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.03.031
    Abstract4986)      PDF(pc) (1383KB)(1134)      
    Power industry of China has made great achievements from 1978. By the end of 2010, the national installed power capacities and the electricity generation of China has reached 962.19 GW and 4.228 trillion kW·h respectively, ranking the second in the world since 1996. The air pollution of coal-fired power plants had been controlled significantly, and the emissions of major pollutants been controlled effectively, with the emission performance declining year by year. The emission performance of the dust emission, SO2 and NOx decreased to 1.0, 3.2 and 2.9 g/(kW·h) respectively in the end of 2009. The power industry took proactive responses toward climate change, and the cumulative emission reduction of CO2 of power industry was about 951 million tons from 2006 to 2009, compared to the 2005 level. Looking forward to the Twelfth Five-Year Plan period (2011-2015), the power industry should insist on the control roadmap of combining the source control and end-of-pipe treatment, and the key work on the regional joint prevention and the multi pollutant control to control the air pollutants; and insist on optimizing the power structure and enhancing the energy saving to deal with climate change.
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    Cited: Baidu(18)
    Discussion on the Criterion of the Evaluation Level in the water Environment Impact Assessment in Water Conservancy and Hydropower Project
    XUE Lian-fang CHEN Kai-qi CAO Xiao-hong LUO Yun-hong
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2011, 1 (2): 181-184.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.02.030
    Abstract4903)      PDF(pc) (527KB)(1317)      
    According to the characteristic of the water environment impacts, and combined with the engineering characteristic water-shed scale and functional requirements, the criterion of the evaluation levels in the water environment impact assessment in water conservancy and hydropower project was put forward, which was checked in different types and scales of hydropower projects. The results showed that the evaluation levels recommended by the criterion in the water environment impact assessment conformed to the actual requirements. The research could provide reference for effectively applying technical guidelines in surface water environmental impact assessment.
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    Degradation of Acetophenone in Wastewater by Electro-Fenton Process
    DOU Lian-feng SONG Yu-dong ZHOU Yue-xi QIN Hong-ke LAN Mei XU Ji-xian
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2011, 1 (2): 101-105.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.02.017
    Abstract4882)      PDF(pc) (552KB)(1655)      
    Electro-Fenton process with activated carbon fiber as the cathode and Ti/SnO2-Sb2O3 as the anode was used in the treatment of acetophenone wastewater. Effects of Fe2+ concentration and electric current density on acetophenone degradation were investigated. It was indicated that the phenyl in acetophenone molecular could be destroyed by electro-Fenton process and chemical oxygen demand (CODCr) of the wastewater decreased significantly. Compared with traditional two-dimensional electrode process in which no Fe2+ was added, the pollutant removal efficiency and current efficiency by electro-Fenton process were both higher. Current density has significant influences on the pollutant removal. Higher current density raised pollutant removal efficiency while lowering current efficiency. Under the conditions of electric current density 10.0 mA/cm2, Fe2+ 0.1 mmol/L and initial pH 4.0, the removal efficiencies of CODCr and acetophenone at 180 min were 58.96% and above 90%, respectively.
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    Cited: Baidu(4)
    Disposal and Management of Waste TFT-LCD
    GUO Yu-wen LIU Jing-yang QIAO Qi LIANG Ji-jun YANG Dong-mei REN Qian
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2011, 1 (2): 168-172.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.02.028
    Abstract4858)      PDF(pc) (643KB)(3380)      
    The main parts of thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) and environmental toxicity of liquid crystal materials were summarized. The toxicity characteristics of waste LCD in their leaching procedure, the route of their recycling and reuse, and the pollution problems were analyzed. Disposal technologies of waste TFT-LCD and related policies on their recycling and management both at home and abroad were reviewed, and on this basis the suggestions on waste TFT-LCD disposal and management were put forward.
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    Cited: Baidu(14)
    Research on Chemical Experiment for Leptomitus lacteus Symboint Control
    LI Tao WANG Hai-yan MENG Fan-jun SUN Chun-bo SONG Bo ZHou Yue-xi WANG Ye-yao
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2011, 1 (2): 137-144.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.02.023
    Abstract4837)      PDF(pc) (1056KB)(1251)      
    The chemical agents of potassium permanganate, chlorine dioxide, copper sulfate and caustic lime were used to study their effects on the growth activity of Leptomitus lacteus symbiont. The variation of microbial biomass of Leptomitus lacteus symbiont before and after dosing the chemical agents was used to reflect the control effect. The water quality variation in water solution of Leptomitus lacteus symbiont before and after dosing the chemicals and the cost of them were analyzed. The results show that the four chemical agents all have some control effects on Leptomitus lacteus symbiont, and when their dosage were 1.5,1.5,2.0 and 40 mg/L, the maximum decrease rate of Leptomitus lacteus symbiont were obtained, being 68.0%,63.1%,67.0% and 76.8%,respectively. According to comprehensive comparison of the control effect on Leptomitus lacteus symbiont, the cost and the water quality variation before and after dosing the chemical agents, the sequence of the four chemicals for emergency from good to bad is chlorine dioxide>potassium permanganate>copper sulfate>caustic lime; while the sequence of treating after collection is caustic lime> potasslum permanganate>copper sulfate>chlorine dioxide.
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    Optimization the Parameters of UZBAF for Treatment of Rural Sewage
    LIU Jin NAN Guo-ying YANG Tian-xue
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2011, 1 (2): 118-122.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.02.020
    Abstract4786)      PDF(pc) (606KB)(1676)      
    The water pollution was increasingly serious recently in China, and the rural sewage pollution accounted for high proportion. The up-flow biological aerated filter (UZBAF) with inner diameter of 185 cm and with 54 L of built-in natural zeolite filter sand was used in the demonstration base for harmless treatment of rural sewage. The results showed that under the conditions of hydraulic loading 2 m3/h and residence time 1.0 h, when the gas-water ratio increased from 2∶1 to 4∶1, CODCr average removal rate increased from 75.2% to 83.4%, BOD5 removal rate increased by 5.9%; turbidity removal rate increased from 91.9% to 94.8%, NH4+-N average removal rate increased from 82.6% to 98.1%, NH4+-N average concentration of the effluent fell from 3.3 mg/L to 0.28 mg/L; the removal rate of TN, TP, alkalinity and conductivity was 56.2%, 26.7%, 27.5% and 10.8%, respectively; and the removal rate of bacteria and ascaris eggs was 99.9% and 100%, respectively. The effluent could reach the target of the first-grade discharge standard of Synthetical Draining Standard of Sewage (GB 8978-1996). It was concluded that under the conditions of hydraulic loading 2 m3/h and residence time 1.0 h, UZBAF devices could realize harmless treatment of rural sewage.
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    Cited: Baidu(1)
    Study and Application of the Heavy Metal Ions Rapid Analysis Method
    YU Ruo-zhen Wang Hong-mei FANG Zheng YAN Zhen-guang WANG Hong
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2011, 1 (5): 438-442.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011. 05.073
    Abstract4734)      PDF(pc) (697KB)(2229)      
    The rapid testing technology for heavy metal ions in environmental samples is in urgent need in the screening level in unexpected environmental pollution incidents and regional ecological risk assessment. Rapid detection methods of heavy metal ions in environmental samples include electrochemical methods and biological methods. There are standardized products of electrochemical anodic stripping voltammetry that can detect several heavy metal ions simultaneously. But the test costs are relatively high. With the nano-particle technology and quartz crystal microbalance analyzer introduced, ASV method will continue to reduce testing costs; Biological detection methods, including the immunoassay and functional DNA detection techniques. Heavy metal ions immunoassay has high-through out samples, testing, low cost. It has been widely used in food examination, which the immunoassay of mercury ions in environmental samples has become the standard testing methods. Immunosensor technology will extend the application space of rapid detection of heavy metal ions. Research of functional DNA sensor will provide a new technical means for the detection of heavy metal ions, but these studies in laboratory have not reached the level of practical application.
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    The Development and Application of Liao River Basin Water Pollution Control Technology Assessment Software
    LI Cong DUAN Liang SONG Yong-hui ZHONG Sheng-jun LI Rui XIANG Lian-cheng LIU Xue-yu
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2011, 1 (4): 348-352.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.04.059
    Abstract4705)      PDF(pc) (686KB)(942)      
    The water environmental problems caused by industrial pollution were serious in Liao River Basin. The pollution problems in different areas of the watershed were related with industries in the areas and the type and concentration of pollutants had obvious industry characteristic. There are a great variety of water treatment technologies; however, different water treatment technologies have obviously different treatment effects for wastewater with different characteristics. Considering that the application scope of water treatment technologies was different and the wastewater had obvious industrial characteristics, multiple-index comprehensive assessment research was performed to find out the optimal technologies for different industries by considering pollutant reduction effect, treatment efficiency and economic factors in order to realize rational allocation of technologies, using the methods such as fuzzy and grey integrated evaluation method and analytic hierarchy process(AHP) method. Because the assessment processes involved both complex mathematic models and big calculation task, the assessment efficiency was not high, and the accuracy was very difficult to guarantee. An assessment software for water pollution treatment technologies was thus developed. The design principles, structure, functions as well as application cases of the software were introduced. The results showed that the application of this software could significantly improve the assessment efficiency and accuracy for water pollution treatment technologies.
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    Study on Isolation and Identification of a Strain Heterotrophic chlorella and its Growth Characteristics
    LI Ao-bo WANG Ping ZHANG Zheng-jie JIU Wei-jing LI Jin-sui
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2011, 1 (2): 131-136.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.02.022
    Abstract4675)      PDF(pc) (759KB)(1841)      
    A heterotrophic WLZ-H strain growing fast was screened from natural waters. The cell morphology of the alga strain was analyzed with scanning electron microscope and, in combination with 16S rDNA molecular biology identification method, it was preliminarily conclude that the WLZ-H strain belonged to Chlorella sorokiniana.Single environmental factor test on the WLZ-H strain showed that the concentration of KNO3 and glucose had significant effects on WLZ-H strain growth; too high temperature would decrease enzyme activity of WLZ-H strain and consequently decrease its growth; pH would change with the growth of WLZ-H strain and reach the suitable value in different growth phase.The optimal growth conditions of WLZ-H strain were:initial pH 7.0, KNO3 content 1.5 g/L, glucose content 40 g/L, temperature 31 ℃.
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    Treatment of berberine pharmaceutical wastewater containing copper by bipolar-electrochemical process
    XIAO Shu-hu ZHANG Guo-fang SONG Yong-hui ZENG Ping LI Hui
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2011, 1 (4): 295-299.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.04.049
    Abstract4613)      PDF(pc) (564KB)(1074)      
    The berberine pharmaceutical wastewater containing copper was treated by the bipolar-electrochemical process. The effects of electrode distance, current intensity and initial pH on the removal efficiencies of berberine and Cu2+ were studied in details. The optimal condition was determined as followed: the electrode distances of 2.0 cm, the current intensity of 4.0 A and initial pH of 0.4. Under the conditions, the concentrations of berberine and Cu2+ reduced from 1 700 and 22 000 mg/L to 120 and 55.0 mg/L within 300 min, and the removal efficiencies reached about 93.3% and 99.9%, respectively. According to the weight method, copper recovery rate was calculated as 97.1%. That is, about 21.35 kg of Cu could be recovered from per ton of such wastewater. Thus, it was proved that the bipolar-electrochemical process was an effective method for the treatment of berberine wastewater containing copper.
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    Environmental Risk Classification and Management for Chemical Industry Parks
    GUO Li-juan YUAN Peng SONG Yong-hui WANG Li PENG Jian-feng XU Wei-ning
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2011, 1 (5): 403-408.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011. 05.067
    Abstract4575)      PDF(pc) (813KB)(1317)      
    In view of the importance of building up the environmental risk management system for chemical industry parks (CIPs) and in reference to US EPA’s general guidance on risk management programs for chemical accident prevention, the basic framework of environmental risk management for CIPs was proposed. The idea of risk classification was applied to the management of CIPs, and the three-level risk management solutions put forward. The method was applied to identify risks of a chemical industry park in Henan Province, in which the enterprises were classified into three risk levels. The results showed that two enterprises were of first-level environmental risk sources, one of second level and four of third level out of the 19 facilities in the park. For the enterprise with high-level risk, environmental risk receptor investigation, public participation and preparation of emergency response plans should be strengthened besides the daily risk management, so as to control the serious environmental pollution incidents within their incubation periods, and effectively prevent environmental pollution accidents and reduce environmental hazards.
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    Cited: Baidu(10)
    Screening of Best Available Techniques for Lead Smelting Pollution Prevention and Control
    WANG Bing SUN Qi-hong HU Xue-wen BAI Lu FANG Lin LIN Xing-jie YANG Xiao-song WANG Jing
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2011, 1 (6): 526-532.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.06.087
    Abstract4549)      PDF(pc) (832KB)(2647)      
    The related policies of lead pollution prevention and control in abroad, the best available techniques (BATs) for lead smelting pollution prevention and control of European Union, and the current smelting techniques of lead in China were briefly analyzed. A method integrating analytical hierarchy process (AHP) with the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (FCE) was used to screen lead smelting pollution prevention and control technologies. In the method, the weights of various evaluation indices were determined by AHP and the lead smelting pollution prevention and control technologies assessed by FCE. Based on the AHP-FCE, the best feasible technique portfolio of lead smelting pollution prevention and control was put forward.
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    Cited: Baidu(8)
    Process Study of Molybdenite Roasting in Pure Oxygen Pressure Reactor
    DU Ji-jun TIAN Gang ZENG Ping LIU Yu SHI Ying-jie ZHANG Fan
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2011, 1 (2): 151-156.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-991X.2011.02.025
    Abstract4542)      PDF(pc) (667KB)(1706)      
    In an oxygen enriched pressure reactor, it was very important to present the molybdenite oxidation process using the curve about temperature and pressure. However, the measured temperature value could not reflect the gas temperature in reactor because of the influence of radiation and temperature rising. It was thus necessary to make a calibration to get the real gas temperature in reactor. An equation relating with environmental temperature, measured temperature and calibration temperature was set up based on the thermal equilibrium and general gas law. The parameters A and B were calculated through the empty reactor roasting experiment. As a result, the method of calibration temperature decided by the change of environmental temperature and the top measurement temperature of reactor was set up. The results showed that the equation fitted well with the real gas temperature. The relationship parameter R2 was 0.915 in empty reactor roasting experiment. The molybdenite roasting process in an oxygen enriched pressure reactor was analyzed by this calibration method. The oxygen temperature was found to decrease during molybdenite oxidation in an oxygen enriched pressure environment. The reaction started obviously when the pressure was 0.262~0.276 MPa and temperature was 456~481 K.
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