Membrane filtration concentrated leachate is the by-product during treating landfill leachate by membrane technology. Compared with landfill leachate, it contains a higher concentration of organic pollutants, inorganic salts and metal ions, with poor biodegradability, and can result in more serious secondary pollution if without proper disposal. The typical treatment processes of membrane concentrated leachate at home and broad were analyzed, and the treatment effects, existing problems and current situation of engineering application of different processes, such as recharge, advanced oxidation, evaporation and “pretreatment + advanced oxidation + advanced treatment”, were discussed. According to the actual investigations, the safe disposal of membrane concentrated leachate in China was still at an early stage. Meanwhile, engineering application technologies, like advanced oxidation, submerged combustion evaporation (SCE) and mechanical vapor recompression (MVC/MVR) were only at laboratory or pilot scale. In order to ensure the safe disposal of concentrated leachate effectively, it was recommended that the concentrated leachate productions need to be reduced from the source; the existing processing techniques of concentrated leachate need to be improved and perfected; the resource utilization technology of concentrated leachate need to be developed; the secondary pollutants of the treatment of concentrated leachate need to be treated properly.