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    Ecological protection and restoration system of mountain-river-forest-farmland-lake-grassland: practicing the theory of lucid waters and lush mountains are invaluable assets
    JIANG Xia,WANG Kun,ZHENG Shuofang,HU Xiaozhen,CHU Zhaosheng
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2019, 9 (5): 475-481.   doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2019.09.020
    Abstract376)   HTML50)    PDF(pc) (1082KB)(236)      

    China is vast in area, but because the population base is huge, the spatial distribution of available land resources is uneven. With the remarkable improvement of the country's economic power and people's living standard, how to realize the sustainable development of the economy and promote the coordinated development of socio-economy and environmental protection under the limited land and resources has become an urgent problem to be solved. The important concept of “mountains, rivers, forests, farmlands and lakes are a community of life” proposed by President Xi Jinping and the idea of systematic governance have pointed out the direction for solving this development problem. The strategic background of ecological protection and restoration of mountain-river-forest-farmland-lake-grassland (MRFFLG) was analyzed and the guiding ideology, basic principles and systematic design ideas of ecological protection and restoration of MRFFLG explained. The key tasks of ecological protection and restoration of MRFFLG were put forward, including the preparation of restoration plan, the scientific determination of spatial distribution, the optimization and adjustment of the resulting structure and population distribution, carrying out ecological restoration according to local conditions, promoting ecological protection and restoration by multi-departments, and clarifying its technical requirements.

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    Technical framework and application of site-inspection and enforcement for air pollutants from stationary sources
    SUN Caiping , SUN Qihong , WANG Wei , LIU Xiaofu , WANG Ying , LUO Lei , LIU Baiyin , QIU Wenting
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2019, 9 (6): 741-747.   doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2019.06.172
    Abstract184)   HTML13)    PDF(pc) (4030KB)(56)      

    Waste gas emission has many characteristics such as many outlets, high concentration, miscellaneous species and unstable emissions, and is the main source of air pollution. However, grassroots law enforcement teams generally have problems such as fewer personnel, single inspection methods, and lack of supervision equipment, resulting in low efficiency of stationary source supervision. On the basis of analyzing the supervision effect of traditional law enforcement methods, a new supervision thought which pays more attention to regional supervision and on-site inspection, and implements intensive supervision to promote precise enforcement was put forward. An air-ground integrated, multi-dimensional supervision technical framework system for stationary source air pollutants emission was constructed, and a combination of high-resolution, high-flexibility technologies for different scenes was selected. A demonstration study on the applications of the technologies in the steel industry in Tianjin was carried out. The demonstration results showed that the regulatory technical framework system had good applicability, able to provide multi-scale and comprehensive pollutant emission data sets, and constitute a corporate compliance evaluation matrix, which could provide a strong guarantee for the implementation of accurate enforcement supervision. Limited to the current inconsistency of regulatory regulations and standards, the applications of new technologies need to be promoted by institutions at all levels.

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    Ideas and practice of ecological protection and restoration of mountain-river-forest-farmland-lake-grassland system in Lake Fuxian Basin
    NIU Yuan,HU Xiaozhen,WANG Linjie,ZHANG Youlin,YU Hui,CAO Xunyu,HE Yongjun,YIN Jiao,JIANG Xia
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2019, 9 (5): 482-490.   doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2019.08.010
    Abstract183)   HTML16)    PDF(pc) (2774KB)(92)      

    Lake Fuxian Basin is an important ecological barrier in southwest China and the Pearl River Basin, and an important part of China's “two screens and three belts” ecological security strategic pattern. Its ecological security is of strategic significance to guarantee the ecological security of the Pearl River Basin and the ecological functional services of the Yunnan-Guizhou plateau and even the national soil and water resources security. Based on the concept of “mountains, rivers, forests, farmlands, lakes and grasslands are a community of life”, and aiming at the eco-environmental problems in Lake Fuxian Basin, such as the need of spatial pattern optimization for the lake basin, the serious land degradation, the overloaded pollutants discharge, and the continuously increasing ecological risk, a set of lake basin ecological protection and restoration schemes were proposed. Putting Class Ⅰof Environmental Quality Standards for Surface Water (GB 3838-2002) for high quality water resources as the goal, and basin space pattern optimization and management and control as the premise, the overall comprehensive protection ideas of “repairing mountains and expanding forests, regulating farmlands and saving water, habitat restoration, pollution control and river management, and lake protection management” were proposed. Five kinds of lake basin ecological protection and restoration schemes covering 47 projects were designed, which included water conservation and mine restoration, farmland regulation and water saving, ecological protection and restoration, pollution source control and clean water restoration, and lake conservation and comprehensive management regulation. After more than one year's implementation, the programme had achieved initial success in expanding the area of forest vegetation, improving the quality and efficiency of farmland, reducing the in-lake pollutant loads, enhancing the ecological stability of the basin and improving eco-environment of lakeside region. The next step is to comprehensively strengthen the spatial control of the river basin and comprehensively promote the pilot projects of ecological protection and restoration, so as to restore the healthy ecological function of the lake basin in an all-round way, guarantee the cleanliness of the water body and the ecological security of the basin, and promote the healthy development of the lake basin.

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    The theoretical connotation of mountain-river-forest-farmland-lake-grassland thoughts and the practice of ecological protection and restoration: taking Guangxi Zuojiang-Youjiang River Basin pilot project as an example
    LI Chunhua,YE Chun,LIU Yan,XIE Hua,ZHANG Zhenhua,YU Cigang,YANG Ruigang,WANG Yakong,LÜ Meiting,DAI Wanqing
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2019, 9 (5): 499-506.   doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2019.07.300
    Abstract153)   HTML18)    PDF(pc) (2996KB)(93)      

    In order to understand and practice the ideology of mountain-river-forest-farmland-lake-grassland (MRFFLG) life community, the general idea of this theory was interpreted and the practice of ecological protection and restoration was explored, taking the pilot project of Zuojiang-Youjiang River Basin in Guangxi as an example. The regional characteristics and eco-environment of the Zuojiang-Youjiang River Basin was analyzed. The basin is a typical karst geomorphology area and at present, its rocky desertification and soil erosion were prominent problems. Many problems had been left over from the history of ecological damage and environmental pollution in mines needed to be solved urgently, and the current situation of biodiversity protection was still under worrying condition. Based on the theory basis of the mechanism of clean water runoff generation in the watershed, the overall idea and performance target of ecological protection and restoration of MRFFLG were clarified. The watershed was divided into four functional areas: mountain water conservation and biodiversity conservation area, hilly soil erosion and stony desertification control area, plain pollution source control and comprehensive environmental improvement area, and wetland and water body ecological protection and restoration area. The restoration schemes of different functional areas were proposed respectively. The pilot programme has been implemented for more than one year and achieved good results, achieving a good combination of economic, social and ecological benefits, which could provide reference for the implementation of similar projects.

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    Characteristics, problems and ecological protection and restoration measures of mountain-river-forest-farmland-lake-grassland elements in Lake Erhai Basin
    CHU Zhaosheng,GAO Sijia,PANG Yan,WANG Shengrui,XIONG Zhonghua,DUAN Biao,YANG Xuesong,ZHAO Jidong
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2019, 9 (5): 507-514.   doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2019.07.291
    Abstract139)   HTML8)    PDF(pc) (1766KB)(64)      

    Lake Erhai, as a representative of lakes with good water quality in China, is one of the key protection lakes of the “new three lakes”. Ecological protection and restoration of mountain-river-forest-farmland-lake-grassland (MRFFLG) is an important content of ecological civilization construction in the basin, and also an inevitable requirement to solve the current problems in protection and management of Lake Erhai. The ecological environmental characteristics of MRFFLG elements of Lake Erhai were expounded systematically, and the main problems diagnosed. Following a general idea of “mountains restoration and afforestation, farmlands and rivers pollution control, ecological restoration and livable environment, and environment capacity increasing and water retention”, with Lake Erhai water quality improvement as the core target, and insisting on comprehensive measures and systematic management of MRFFLG, the overall goal and performance indexes of protection and restoration were defined. A series of tasks and measures, including ecology spatial pattern optimization, mine treatment and forest ecosystem repair, green and ecological agriculture development, inlake small watershed systematic governance, aquatic ecosystem regulation and restoration, and environment supervision management enhancement, were put forward. The integrated protection and restoration programme of Lake Erhai Basin was thus formed, so as to provide a general outline and guidance for the protection and management of MRFFLG in Lake Erhai Basin and also provided a scientific basis for the protection and management and sustainable development of Lake Erhai Basin.

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    Characteristics of aluminum sludge composite filler and its application in constructed wetlands
    XI Daoguo,ZHANG Ruibin,ZHOU Nai,CHEN Fan,ZU Baiyu,WANG Leyang
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2019, 9 (5): 552-558.   doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2019.05.070
    Abstract116)   HTML15)    PDF(pc) (2113KB)(58)      

    Three kinds of aluminum sludge composite fillers, including aluminum sludge-zeolite, aluminum sludge-steel slag, aluminum sludge-zeolite-steel slag, were prepared by using aluminum sludge, steel slag and zeolite. The physical properties and isothermal adsorption properties of phosphorus were studied. The composite fillers were used in a pilot-scale constructed wetland system, and their purification effects on wetland water quality were discussed. The results showed that the three kinds of composite fillers had higher volume density, porosity and specific surface area compared with aluminum sludge and conventional wetland fillers. The adsorption effect on phosphorus was quite different, with the order as follows: aluminum sludge-steel slag>aluminum sludge-zeolite> aluminum sludge-zeolite-steel slag. The removal rate of CODCr was about 70% in constructed wetland which revealed no significant differences. The removal rate of TP, TN and NH3-N were significantly different; the removal rate of aluminum sludge-steel slag and aluminum sludge-zeolite on TP was higher (above 93%), while that of aluminum sludge-zeolite, aluminum sludge-zeolite-steel slag on TN and NH3-N was higher (TN above 65% and NH3-N 77%). The aluminum sludge-zeolite composite filler had the best comprehensive removal effect on pollutants in constructed wetlands, and the effluent quality of constructed wetlands could reach level A of Pollutant Discharge Standard for Urban Sewage Treatment Plants (GB 18918-2002).

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    Characteristics of dust emissions from roads in different functional areas of Beijing
    QI Haoyun,FAN Shoubin,WANG Kai
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2020, 10 (3): 323-329.   doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20190171
    Abstract104)   HTML36)    PDF(pc) (2765KB)(78)      

    Taking Dongcheng District, Chaoyang District, Shunyi District and Pinggu District as representative of capital functional core area, urban functional expansion area, new urban development area and ecological conservation area, the characteristics of road dust emission in Beijing’s four major functional areas were analyzed. The AP-42 method and mobile detection system was used to collect road dust from different types of roads in different areas and establish the inventory of road dust emission in each district, and the spatial distribution map of road dust emission in each district was made by using the data of Beijing road network in ArcGIS. The results showed that the average dust load of all types of roads in the core area and expansion area was branch road>sub-main road>main road>expressway. The average dust load of all types of roads in new urban development area and ecological conservation area was village road>township road>county road>provincial road>national road. The total amount of road dust emission in core area and expansion area was smaller, and the amount of road dust emission per unit area was larger; while the total amount of road dust emission in new development area and ecological conservation area was larger, and the amount of road dust emission per unit area was smaller.

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    Variation characteristics of volatile organic compounds and deodorization effects in the landfill work zone in Shanghai
    ZHANG Haijing, CHEN Haoquan , YUN Xiaoxue , XIE Bing
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2019, 9 (6): 623-630.   doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2019.08.070
    Abstract103)   HTML40)    PDF(pc) (3388KB)(62)      

    The landfill in Shanghai has a large volume and the environmental risk of the garbage components is high, and it is essential to deeply study the variation characteristics and related control methods of the release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). GC-MS was used to determine the concentrations of VOCs released from landfills in different seasons, compare the effects of deodorant spraying on VOCs, and assess their environmental and health risks. The primary control pollutants of VOCs, the key pollutants of ozone generation, and the characterization of occupational exposure risks at different seasons were thus determined, so as to provide technical support for subsequent targeted control and removal of volatile organic compounds. It was found that the total concentration of VOCs was the highest in summer, mainly with alkanes, aldehydes and ketones, of which isopentane and acetone were the dominant compounds. The deodorant had a certain removal effect on the odor concentration, NH3 and H2S, but increased the varieties and concentration of VOCs, enhanced the ozone generation potential, and could raise the non-carcinogenic risk and carcinogenic risk in the landfill, both of which were within acceptable risk levels.

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    Harmless treatment and resource utilization of kitchen waste: development status and trend
    DENG Jun
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2019, 9 (6): 637-642.   doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2019.05.300
    Abstract102)   HTML25)    PDF(pc) (883KB)(93)      

    Kitchen waste has a high content of organic matter, which has a high reusable value. However, the improper disposal of it can easily cause various environmental problems and great harm. Based on the literature, the production and treatment status of kitchen waste in foreign countries, and the construction and treatment capacity of kitchen waste treatment facilities in China were summarized. The characteristics of the kitchen waste in China were analyzed. Three kinds of harmless treatment technologies of kitchen waste in China, including landfill and incineration, feed-based technology and biological treatment technology, were expounded. The characteristics, principles, application conditions, advantages and disadvantages of the main technologies were compared and analyzed. The main process and application status of biological treatment technology, which was the mainstream technology at present, were expounded emphatically. The technical and management problems in the utilization and harmless treatment of kitchen waste were summarized. The future development trend of kitchen waste treatment technology in China was proposed from the aspects of technology and management, such as promoting the optimization and integration of various treatment technologies, implementing the separation and transportation of waste sources, and improving the management system and policies of kitchen waste.

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    Problem identification and scheme study of ecological protection and restoration of mountain-river-forest-farmland-lake-grassland in Xiaoxinganling-Sanjiang Plain
    ZHANG Bo,WANG Shuhang,ZHENG Shuofang,JIANG Xia,NI Yanfang
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2019, 9 (5): 491-498.   doi: 10.12153//j.issn.1674-991X.2019.07.290
    Abstract99)   HTML14)    PDF(pc) (4069KB)(63)      

    Xiaoxinganling-Sanjiang Plain is the original ecological security barrier of northeast (north) China. It is a key area of biodiversity and also a key food production base in China. Its eco-environmental protection has attracted much attention. According to the regional characteristics of the Xiaoxinganling-Sanjiang Plain, major eco-environmental problems in the region were identified from forest, mine, grassland, wetland, water and other elements. On the basis of defining the regional functions, the design idea, general layout and specific engineering scheme of ecological protection and restoration programme of mountain-river-forest-farmland-lake-grassland were put forward. It revealed that the main eco-environmental problems in Xiaoxinganling-Sanjiang Plain included the weakening of forest water conservation function, the ecological destruction of abandoned mines, the reduction and degradation of grassland area, the shrinking of wetland area, and the decline of partial water function. According to the optimization of the ecological space control combined with zoning classification precision repair, combined with the area of lakes, mountains, rivers, and other important natural geographical boundaries, it was proposed to build the overall layout of “two barrier, one belt, and one zone” (Xiaoxinganling ecological security barrier, Wandashan ecological security barrier, Songhua river water and soil pollution prevention and control belt, Sanjiang Plain wetland biodiversity conservation zone). On this basis, five major projects, including forest protection and restoration projects, mine environmental control projects, land regulation and restoration projects, biodiversity protection projects and water environmental protection and control projects, were promoted as a whole. The implementation of the programme was expected to bring good ecological, social and economic benefits to the region.

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    Biological monitoring method of water environment and its application
    JI Ye,WU Yumeng,XU Qiujin
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2019, 9 (5): 616-622.   doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2019.04.150
    Abstract93)   HTML14)    PDF(pc) (998KB)(64)      

    In recent years, hazardous events caused by water environmental pollution have occurred frequently. Monitoring water environment is the basis of scientific water pollution prevention and control. Compared with traditional physio-chemical monitoring technology, biological monitoring has incomparable advantages in terms of sensitivity, stability, diversity and long term, and can directly and effectively reflect the ecological risk of water environment. The importance and advantages of biological monitoring methods and the main biological monitoring types were summarized. Based on a large number of literatures at home and abroad, the research progress of monitoring methods for main biological types of water environment, such as microorganism, phytoplankton, zooplankton, periphyton, zoobenthos, higher aquatic plants and fish, was reviewed. The practice and application of biological monitoring methods at home and abroad were discussed, and the future development of biological monitoring prospected.

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    The bottleneck and countermeasures in the pollution control of livestock and poultry breeding in China
    LI Hongna,WU Huashan,GENG Bing,ZHU Changxiong
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2020, 10 (2): 167-172.   doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20200003
    Abstract87)   HTML24)    PDF(pc) (937KB)(261)      

    With the large-scale and rapid development of livestock and poultry breeding in China, significant achievements had been made in the utilization of fecal sewage resources, but 40 percent of fecal sewage had not been rationally and effectively utilized. The bottleneck problems causing the current situation mainly included: unreasonable distribution of breeding, mismatch of breeding scale, and great difficulty in the utilization of fecal sewage resources. In addition, there were few complete sets of effective technologies for the prevention and control of breeding sewage, especially those that were economically applicable, and many technologies were expensive or inefficient. Aiming at the key and difficult points for livestock and poultry breeding sewage control technology, the National Major Science and Technology Program for Water Pollution Control and Treatment (Major Water Program) had developed a batch of practical technologies. According to the characteristics of some regions, a set of management technologies for breeding pollution prevention and control was developed which, to some extent, could resolve the circulation issue from the source control to the resource utilization. More than 10 technical specifications (guidelines) were formulated and published, having provided a good support for livestock and poultry breeding pollution control in China. In view of the large scale base of livestock and poultry breeding in China, high proportion of scattered breeding, weak infrastructure and management mechanism, etc., some countermeasures and suggestions were put forward, including controlling the breeding pollution through legal system and classified measures, strengthening the establishment of high efficient collection, transformation and utilization technology system of livestock and poultry manure, promoting the study of standardized and normalized combination of planting and breeding technology mode, strengthening the cultivation of the third-party social service organizations, and enhancing policy support, etc.

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    Comparison of enhancements of NaOH and liquid digestate soaking pretreatments for the anaerobic digestion of wheat husk
    SUN Jiachen,LI Zifu,ZHU Lixin
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2019, 9 (5): 603-608.   doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2019.01.150
    Abstract83)   HTML9)    PDF(pc) (1463KB)(20)      

    The enhancements of NaOH and liquid digestate soaking pretreatments for the anaerobic digestion of wheat husk were compared. Different concentrations of NaOH (2%, 4%, 6%, 8%) at 80 ℃ for 2 h were investigated, and the results showed that 6% NaOH treated wheat husk obtained maximum methane yield of 199.5 mL/g, which was 191.2% higher than untreated raw substance (68.5 mL/g),and the digestion time was only 6 days. The results showed that after 5 days of pretreatment of wheat bran with liquid digestate, the effect of liquid digestate from chicken manure was apparently superior to that from cattle manure, and the maximum methane yield reached 130.8 mL/g, being equivalent to that from 2% NaOH pretreatment, but without additional chemical or biological pretreatment drugs. Thus, the two pretreatment methods could be selected and applied flexibly according to the practical demand.

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    Bacterial community characteristics and key driving factors of surface sediments in Huailai section of Yongding River in winter
    ZHAO Jianguo,ZHAI Xuezheng,GUO Xiang,WANG Yejiao,WANG Jianghua,ZHOU Zimeng,JIANG Tiantian
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2019, 9 (5): 544-551.   doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2019.03.250
    Abstract80)   HTML27)    PDF(pc) (3335KB)(24)      

    The water quality indexes of surface sediments and overlying water in Huailai section of the Yongding River in winter were analyzed, the characteristics and diversity of bacterial community in sediments were studied by high-throughput sequencing technology, and the correlation between bacterial species in main sediments and relevant environmental factors was analyzed. The results showed that the average amount of OTUs of surface sediments in Huailai section of the Yongding River in winter was 7 357, the dominant bacterial species in surface sediment phylum level were Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi and Firmicutes etc., and the dominant species in bacterial genus level were not obvious. The Shannon index of sediment bacteria ranged from 8.135 to 10.647, ACE index ranged from 6 060.643 to 7 182.679, Chao1 index ranged from 5 553.562 to 6 967.912, the bacterial species were the most abundant in cattail wetland sediments, while the bacterial species were less in the tributary surface sediments under ice-sealed water body. Organic phosphorus (OP) and $NH^{+}_{4}$-N concentration of surface sediment, TP and $NO^{-}_{2}$-N concentration of overlying water were the main driving factors of bacteria relatively abundance of surface sediments in winter in Huailai section of the Yongding River. Among them, sediment bacteria abundance were negatively correlated with sediment OP and $NH^{+}_{4}$-N concentration, and positively correlated with overlying water TP and $NO^{-}_{2}$-N concentration.

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    Study on aluminum recovery and the preparation of activated carbon from Tetra Pak waste
    MA Yuhui, CAO Junrui, JIANG Tianxiang, WANG Xunliang, ZHAO Jin, XIE Baolong
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2019, 9 (6): 631-636.   doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2019.05.161
    Abstract76)   HTML32)    PDF(pc) (2548KB)(40)      

    Char and aluminum were obtained by pyrolysis of Tetra Pak waste and separated from each other. The activated carbon was prepared from the char as raw materials and K2CO3 as activator. The pyrolysis characteristics of Tetra Pak waste was investigated by thermogravimetric/differential thermal analyzer coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (TG/DTA-FTIR). The N2-adsorption/desorption curves of activated carbon were determined by automatic gas adsorption instrument and the surface functional groups of activated carbon were characterized by FTIR. TG-FTIR was used to gain insight into the activation mechanism of activated carbon. Experimental results showed that the pyrolysis of paper and polyethylene and the melting of aluminum in Tetra Pak waste occurred at 365, 490 and 664 ℃, respectively. The filler CaCO3 decomposed at 720 ℃. The specific surface area and total pore volume of activated carbon were 1 215 m 2/g and 0.768 cm 3/g, respectively, and the surface functional groups of activated carbon were mainly C=O、C—O—C and aliphatic C—H. The decomposition of CaCO3 contained in char at 740 ℃ led to the formation of CO2, and pores can be created via the in-situ reduction of CO2 by char; K2CO3 began to be melted at 820 ℃, and the molten K2CO3 reacted with the carbon matrix to form CO and caused the loss of carbon. Both processes were involved in the formation of pores of activated carbon.

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    Application of a best multi-model ensemble method in PM2.5 forecast in heavily polluted regions of China
    ZHANG Tianhang,WANG Jikang,ZHANG Hengde,ZHANG Bihui,LÜ Mengyao,JIANG Qi,CHI Qianyuan,LUAN Tian
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2019, 9 (5): 520-530.   doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2019.04.250
    Abstract71)   HTML10)    PDF(pc) (14348KB)(28)      

    To improve the forecast accuracy of PM2.5 concentration in heavily polluted regions of China, ensemble forecasts were built by mean ensemble, weighted ensemble, multiple linear regression ensemble and back propagation artificial neural networks ensemble, respectively, based on four numerical air quality models developed and maintained by national or regional environmental metrological service centers. A best multi-model ensemble forecast was established based on real-time evaluations of performances of single numerical models and ensemble methods. Through evaluation of the forecast results during 2015-2016, compared with single numerical air quality forecast models, improvements on forecast biases due to mean and weighted ensembles were limited, but multiple linear regression, back propagation artificial neural networks and best ensembles could largely reduce the forecast biases. The NMB and RMSE values between best ensemble forecast and observation were from -10% to 10% and from 10 to 70 μg/m 3, respectively. Best ensemble showed strong correlation with observations at more sites compared with other ensemble methods, but also underestimated PM2.5 concentrations in high pollution level. During the pollution process occurred in Jing-Jin-Ji region from February 25 to March 4, 2018, best ensemble had the ability to forecast the trend and magnitude of PM2.5 concentrations. In three representative cities of Beijing, Shijiazhuang and Zhengzhou, the NMB and R values between best ensemble and observations varied from 26% to 4% and from 0.49 to 0.77, respectively. The TS scores of best ensemble for mild and moderate pollution ranged from 0.39 to 0.73, and that of severe and above pollution ranged from 0.13 to 0.30. These indicate that best ensemble can provide a strong objective reference to forecaster, but its forecast ability of peak values needs to be further improved.

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    The influence of air characteristics on wet plume control technology
    GUO Xiaohu,ZHANG Xiaolong,LI Junmin,DU Yuan,LI Yuan
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2019, 9 (5): 531-537.   doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2019.02.250
    Abstract66)   HTML11)    PDF(pc) (2150KB)(20)      

    The influences of air characteristics such as pressure, temperature and relative humidity on the thermal state of flue gas, the formation of wet plume, and on the effectiveness of wet plume control technologies were analyzed. Results showed that air characteristics would affect the selection of temperature and humidity of the saturated flue gas. The temperature of air had a greater effect on wet plume than its relative humidity. In addition, the influence of air pressure on gas emission temperature increased with the decrease of the temperature of the saturated wet flue gas. The lower the temperature of the air was, the smaller the reference change rate of gas emission temperature would be. Air temperature and relative humidity would affect white smoke elimination effect and the desired effect would then determine the condensation and reheating temperature of flue gas.

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    Wetland loss identification based on remote sensing technology and its application in Binhai New Area, Tianjin City
    LÜ Jinxia,JIANG Weiguo,WANG Wenjie,LI Zhuo,CHEN Zheng,CHEN Kun
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2020, 10 (1): 1-8.   doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20190092
    Abstract66)   HTML12)    PDF(pc) (31453KB)(71)      

    The acceleration of the urbanization process and a series of unreasonable development and utilization of wetland resources have caused serious damage of the wetland, and the monitoring of the temporal and spatial changes of wetland resources plays important role in the regional development and sustainable development of wetland. Based on multi-period land use data and long-term sequence Landsat image data, the loss status of wetland types were analyzed by using Markov transfer matrix and GIS spatial analysis method. The trend analysis method was used to analyze the wetland vegetation, water body and soil moisture elements loss in long-term sequences and different stages. The remote sensing identification method of wetland loss was constructed, and the wetland loss patterns were summarized combined with wetland type and wetland element loss, with a case study in Tianjin Binhai New Area. The results showed that the damage of wetland types in Binhai New Area was mainly divided into three periods (1980s-2000, 2000-2009, 2009-2015). From 1980s to 2015, the wetland experienced the process from damage to recovery, and the wetland area increased by 41.40 km 2. Wetland elements showed a degradation trend from 1984 to 2015. The areas of significant degradation of NDVI, NDWI and SMMI were 364.66, 221.28 and 253.94 km 2, respectively. In three different periods, different dominant factors affected the damaged area of wetland. In Binhai New Area, the wetland loss was mainly caused by vegetation, water area and vegetation during the three periods.

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    Thoughts on technical specification for application and issuance of rare earth industry's pollutant permits
    ZHAO Ruonan,MA Zhong,QIAO Qi,LI Yanping,CHANG Dunhu
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2019, 9 (5): 609-615.   doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2019.04.290
    Abstract65)   HTML10)    PDF(pc) (1024KB)(30)      

    China's rare earth industry has the characteristics of numerous products, complicated production process and obvious industrial pollution particularity. Therefore, it is urgent to scientifically formulate technical specification for application and issue of pollutant permits according to their pollution characteristics. The main production technologies of rare earth industry, the types of pollutants and the main pollution links were analyzed. Based on the experience of permit application and issue of technical specifications from nonferrous metal industry and renewable metal industry, key technical specifications such as determination of pollution factors, classification of discharge outlets and calculation of permitted discharges were analyzed in formulation of technical specifications for pollutant discharge permits of the rare earth industry. Suggestions on the formulation of technical specifications for the rare earth industry were put forward from the aspects of increasing the characteristic pollution factors of the industry, dividing the discharge outlets into the main ones and the general ones, determining the permitted discharge limits and calculating the permitted discharges, and increasing the pollution control requirements for the southern ion-type rare earth mines.

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    Research on the ecological protection and restoration of mountain-river-forest-farmland-lake-grassland system in typical farming-pastoral ecotone: taking Daihai Lake Basin in Inner Mongolia as an example
    WANG Shuhang,BAI Miaoxin,CHEN Junyi,ZHAO Li,ZHANG Bo,GUO Yunyan,JIANG Xia
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2019, 9 (5): 515-519.   doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2019.08.050
    Abstract63)   HTML7)    PDF(pc) (1918KB)(42)      

    Daihai Lake Basin, a typical farming-pastoral ecotone, is an important part of the northern sand control belt in China's “two screens and three belts” ecological security strategic pattern, as well as an important part of the ecological barrier in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region, and its eco-environmental protection is of great significance. In view of the unique geographical characteristics and habitat conditions of Dahai Lake Basin, and centering on the two core issues of water quantity reduction and ecological degradation, the priority list of water quantity, water quality and water ecology was sorted out. With the guarantee of the ecological security of Dahai Lake Basin as the core goal, and in accordance with the idea of combining the optimization of ecological space management and control with the accurate restoration of zoning and classification, the land space management and control system of “one lake and three districts” and the ecological protection and restoration project system of mountain-river-forest-farmland-lake-grassland of “two increases, two decreases and three balances” were constructed. It was expected to strengthen the ecological service function of Daihai Lake Basin and promote the socio-economic development of ecologically fragile areas in the ecologically fragile farming-pastoral ecotone.

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    The simulation and prediction of TN in wastewater treatment effluent using BP neural network and ARIMA model
    LIN Jiamin,CHEN Jinliang,LIN Jingjing,LI Xuanji,MA Cong,ZHANG Zhiqiang,SHEN Liang
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2019, 9 (5): 573-578.   doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2019.03.261
    Abstract63)   HTML9)    PDF(pc) (2632KB)(35)      

    Total nitrogen in effluent is one of the critical indicators for evaluating the performance of wastewater treatment plants. A BP neural network model was developed to simulate the present nitrogen removal system for wastewater treatment, and an autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model was creatively applied to realize the short-term prediction of future effluent. The results showed that the simulation average relative error of BP model on training set was 15.9%, and that on test set was 16.5%,which revealed that the stability of model prediction was poor. The average error of the ARIMA model for predicting the total nitrogen value in the coming week was around 4.41%, which showed high prediction accuracy. The combination of the two models could help fast and efficient on-line detection of wastewater treatment plants.

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    Synergistic treatment of aquaculture and aquatic products processing wastewater by mixotrophic denitrification process
    XU Zan , LI Wei , YI Bo , WANG Hengqi , SONG Zhenhe , LIU Jiamin , BING Xiuchen , LIANG Xiao
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2019, 9 (6): 673-679.   doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2019.04.170
    Abstract62)   HTML9)    PDF(pc) (1672KB)(31)      

    The wastewater from aquaculture and aquatic products processing was complex, salty and difficult to be treated. The mixotrophic denitrification process was adopted in continuous stirred tank reactor(CSTR) for simultaneous removal of C and N. The acclimation of activated sludge at different salinity, and the effects of C/N and HRT on the synergistic/competitive transaction of autotrophic and heterotrophic denitrification in mixotrophic system were analyzed. Results showed that among the three acclimation methods of autotrophic/heterotrophic denitrification sludge, the acclimation efficiency was in the order of high salt > low salt-high salt > no salt-low salt-high salt. High salt acclimation method was beneficial for the rapid start-up of denitrification system. In the mixotrophic system, the removal load and removal rate of $NO_{2}^{-}$ reached 0.3 kg/(m 3·d) and 99.7%, respectively, with HRT of 8.0 h. The removal rates of $NO_{2}^{-}$ and COD reached 99.9% and 99.0%, respectively, with C/N of 5.0. Therefore, HRT of 8.0 h and C/N of 5.0 were more conducive to the high operating efficiency of mixotrophic denitrification system.

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    Review on odor control of livestock and poultry manure composting
    XIA Xiangqin, XI Beidou, HUANG Caihong, TANG Zhurui, YUAN Wenchao
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2019, 9 (6): 649-657.   doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2019.05.142
    Abstract60)   HTML15)    PDF(pc) (875KB)(37)      

    In the process of livestock and poultry manure composting, the generation of fetor gas is high and the composition is complex. It is increasingly imperative to study the mechanism and control approaches of odor in the composting process. The generation and harm of the main odor components in the process of livestock and poultry manure composting, the influence factors of composting odor and the optimized control conditions were described. The response mechanism of key microorganisms in compost microenvironment, main odoriferous and deodorizing microorganisms and their degradation of odors were discussed. The main types, research progress, application and effects of both in situ and ectopic biological control technologies were summarized. It was suggested that the structure of functional microorganism communities and their microenvironment guarantee should have important influence on composting odor control, which could provide scientific basis and reference for the optimization of biological deodorization technology of compost.

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    Characteristics of the water-soluble inorganic ions of indoor PM2.5 in Xuanwei City in winter
    WU Fan,SHAO Longyi,LU Jing,XI Chunxiu,CHANG Lingli,GAO Qiusheng
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2019, 9 (5): 538-543.   doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2019.03.220
    Abstract57)   HTML7)    PDF(pc) (1785KB)(26)      

    A total of 48 sets of PM2.5 samples of atmospheric fine particles were collected indoors during the winter of 2016 in two villages of Xuanwei City, Yunnan Province. The mass concentrations of PM2.5 were obtained by weighing. Eight kinds of water-soluble inorganic ions, including Na +, $NH^{+}_{4}$, K +, Mg 2+, Ca 2+, Cl -, $NO^{-}_{3}$ and $SO^{2-}_{4}$, were analyzed by ion chromatography. The results showed that the daily average concentrations of PM2.5 in old coal-fired households in Xuanwei ranged from 52.5 to 417.0 μg/m 3 and those in new electrical households ranged from 43.6 to 77.9 μg/m 3. The daily average concentrations of water-soluble inorganic ions in old coal-fired households ranged from 21.90 to 68.90 μg/m 3, and the mass concentration levels of eight water-soluble inorganic ions were in the order of Cl ->Na +>$NO^{-}_{3}$ >$SO^{2-}_{4}$ >$NH^{+}_{4}$ >K ++Ca 2++Mg 2+. The daily average mass concentrations of water-soluble inorganic ions in new households ranged from 12.53 to 48.04 μg/m 3 and the mass concentration levels of eight water-soluble inorganic ions were in the order of $NO^{-}_{3}$>$SO^{2-}_{4}$ >Cl ->Na +>$NH^{+}_{4}$ >K +>Ca 2+>Mg 2+. The indoor PM2.5 concentration and water-soluble inorganic ion concentration in the old coal-fired households were higher than that of new electrical households in Xuanwei City. Coal burning was the main source of indoor air pollution.

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    Study on properties of acrylic resin paint slag modified PVC foam composites
    ZHANG Qingjie,MA Pengyang,XIANG Lan
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2019, 9 (5): 597-602.   doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2019.01.242
    Abstract56)   HTML7)    PDF(pc) (2233KB)(28)      

    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) foam system was modified with the blending of recycled thermoplastic acrylic resin and paint slag, and the foam composite was prepared by using hot-pressing method. The effects of the paint slag dosage on the shear viscosity of blending systems and microstructure, apparent density, mechanical properties and heat resistance of the resulting PVC foam composites were investigated. The results indicated that the addition of acrylic resin paint slag could increase the interaction between PVC molecular chains, improve the shear viscosity and regulate the melt strength of PVC foaming systems, thus leading to PVC foams with small and homogeneous cellular structures. With adding of 10% paint slag, the shear viscosity of blending system increased from 2 726.1 Pa·s to 9 029.4 Pa·s, and the resulted PVC foam composite exhibited optimal comprehensive performances, in which the apparent density decreased from 0.63 g/cm 3 to 0.49 g/cm 3, the flexural and impact strength increased from 13.6 MPa and 4.7 kJ/m 2 to 18.2 MPa and 8.9 kJ/m 2, respectively, and Tg increased from 72 ℃ to 75 ℃.

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    Study on the influence of inflowing rivers on the water quality of Qiandao Lake: taking CODMn as an example
    XIE Pei , GAO Feng , WANG Shuhang , ZHANG Bo , QIAO Fei , HE Chuan , ZHANG Le
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2019, 9 (6): 692-700.   doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2019.04.300
    Abstract54)   HTML6)    PDF(pc) (2493KB)(22)      

    Based on the measured data of CODMn in the key monitoring sections of Qiandao Lake, a two-dimensional water quality model for Qiandao Lake based on the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) Model was established. The influence of inflow CODMn from upstream and the inflows around the lake on the CODMn in inner Qiandao Lake were analyzed by various scenarios. The response relation between the boundary CODMn and the CODMn at key monitoring sections in the lake was analyzed, and the influence and contribution of the upstream inflow CODMn variation on the CODMn of the key monitoring sections in the lake were quantified. Results showed that the comprehensive degradation coefficient (k)of CODMn in Qiandao Lake was 0.001 5, according to the parallel simulation of several constant degradation coefficients. There existed an obvious response relation between the upstream inflow CODMn and CODMn in the key monitoring sections. When the upstream inflow CODMn was 6 mg/L, CODMn between Weipinglinchang to Santandao sections exceeded Grade Ⅱ water quality standard of Surface Water Environmental Quality Standards (GB 3838-2002). Meanwhile, simulated results showed that the response coefficients of upstream inflows were obviously larger than that of inflows around the lake. The contribution rate of upstream inflows to CODMn in key monitoring sections of Weipinglinchang, Xiaojinshan, Santandao and Dabaqian was 82.0%-92.3%, 73.8%-88.2%, 53.8%-62.8% and 57.7%-76.4% , respectively. The impact of CODMn on key monitoring sections from upstream inflows was greater than the inflows around the lake. The results indicated that upstream inflows were the main factors affecting the CODMn of the key monitoring sections in Qiandao Lake. Therefore, the water quality monitoring and pollutant control should be strengthened for upstream inflows.

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    Characteristics and evaluation of heavy metal pollution in soil around coal-fired power plants
    LÜ Zhanlu , ZHANG Jinliang , ZOU Tiansen , LIU Kai , WANG Manxiang , ZHANG Han
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2019, 9 (6): 720-731.   doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2019.05.240
    Abstract54)   HTML5)    PDF(pc) (2301KB)(37)      

    According to the National Soil Pollution Status Survey Report, the overall soil environment in China was not optimistic. In some areas, soil pollution was heavy, and the quality of cultivated soil environment was worrying. In order to investigate and evaluate the pollution levels of heavy metals in the soil around the coal-fired power plants, according to the sector layout principle for point sources, the sampling sites were laid out at four different distances around the power plants A and B, with the area far away from the power plants was taken as the control point. A total of 32 soil samples were finally collected. The contents of 12 heavy metals such as Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Ag, Cd, Sb, Hg, and Pb were analyzed. The results showed that 8 kinds of heavy metal elements including Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Ag, and Cd in the soil around the two power plants were higher than the average background value of Anhui Province. The average concentration of Cd in the soil around power plants A and B was 0.230 and 0.172 mg/kg, respectively. Compared with the risk screening values under 6.5Risk Control Standard for Soil Contamination of Agricultural Land (GB 15618-2018), the average concentration was 1.79 and 1.49 times higher than the standard value, respectively, and the maximum over-standard points were located at 500 m downwind of 45° angle to the dominant wind and 500 m downwind of the sub-dominant wind direction. The contents of Cr and Cd in the downwind direction of its perennial dominant wind were higher than that of the control points, and the difference was statistically significant (P was 0.03 and 0.04 respectively). The heavy metal elements of Cr, Cd, Ni, As, Pb and Sb around the power plants had obvious spatial distribution differences, which were consistent with the point source distribution characteristics, while the distribution of other heavy metals was uniform, and the difference was not obvious. The pollution degree of heavy metal elements in the soil around power plant A was severe pollution, while that of power plant B was moderate or light pollution, with Nemerow comprehensive pollution index (PI) being 2.7-5.0 and 1.5-2.4, respectively for plants A and B. The comprehensive potential ecological risk index (RI) of various heavy metals around power plants A and B was 105.0-190.7 and 82.1-139.6, respectively, and the potential ecological risk was moderate or slight. The contribution rate of Cd, Hg and As to RI was large. Comprehensively considering the content and spatial distribution characteristics of heavy metals in the soil around the power plants and the results of correlation analysis and cluster analysis, the heavy metal elements in the soil around power plant A may have been affected by human activities, as the pollution degree and potential ecological risk of heavy metals in the soil were significantly higher than that of power plant B and the control points. The pollution orientation was also multi-faceted, not only limited to the downwind direction. Therefore, in the supervision of coal-fired power plants, comprehensive consideration should be given to their impact of various aspects on the environment, soil and population.

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    Study on thickness change of mud cake during electrolytic dewatering process
    XING Siqi, LÜ Hang, ZHANG Wenbiao, LIU Daoguang, WU Xu
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2019, 9 (6): 643-648.   doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2019.06.180
    Abstract54)   HTML10)    PDF(pc) (3263KB)(25)      

    Sludge electrolytic dehydration has its unique advantages, but at the same time accompanied by high power consumption, low space-time yield and other problems. In order to reduce energy consumption, taking the change of mud cake thickness in the process of sludge electrolytic dehydration as the starting point, the rule of thickness change and the relationship between thickness change and water content were explored through the small test device. The change of water content was more intuitive and controllable by observing thickness change in sludge electrolysis process under the action of vertical electric field. The mechanism of thickness change was briefly analyzed from the density and moisture content. The experiment proved that the thickness of mud cake changed regularly during the process of electrolysis. When the amount of mud input was less, the thickness of mud cake decreased with the decrease of water content, while when the amount of mud input was larger, the thickness of mud cake increased firstly and then decreased with the decrease of water content.

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    Research progress of determination methods of atmospheric brown carbon
    WANG Lei,JIN Wenjing,ZHI Guorui,ZHANG Yuzhe,GUO Sicong,SUN Jianzhong
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2020, 10 (3): 346-361.   doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20190157
    Abstract54)   HTML6)    PDF(pc) (2398KB)(41)      

    Atmospheric brown carbon (BrC) is a category of organic carbon (OC) that is light-absorbing in carbon aerosols. Compared with black carbon (BC), BrC absorption capacity grows faster with shorter wavelengths, and has become one of the hot spots in the research field of atmospheric aerosol energy budget. Because BrC comes from a wide range of sources and does not specifically refer to a single substance, there are no widely-accepted standard methods or reference materials for the determination of BrC. Various approaches for the determination of BrC appearing in literature were described, including the chemical method of separating BrC by solvent extraction, the optical method of distinguishing the absorption contribution of BrC from total based on the difference in light-absorption features between BrC and BC, the thermal/optical method of optically separating BrC from other substances in a few wavelengths on the traditional thermal/optical carbon analyzer in reference to the difference of thermal stability between BrC and BC, and the mass spectrometry of characterizing BrC at molecular-level. The principle, characteristics, application and research progress of the methods were systematically summarized and reviewed. It was also noted that almost all the quantitative determination methods currently used for BrC qua.pngication were exploratory and had great limitations. Optimization measures were needed to make up for the defects of individual methods, including the need for an inclusive methodology that did not exclude diversity and independence of existing methods, in order to make different methods intercomparable to a certain extent.

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    A cleaning method for anion exchange membrane fouled by sodium polyacrylate
    SUN Yixin , CAO Gang , DAI Jingfu , ZHANG Chunyu , SHEN Zhiqiang , SONG Yudong, HE Xuwen , ZHOU Yuexi
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2019, 9 (6): 666-672.   doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2019.04.040
    Abstract53)   HTML2)    PDF(pc) (3245KB)(27)      

    Anion exchange membrane fouling caused by sodium polyacrylate (PAS) is one of the critical factors that affect organic acid recovery from butyl acrylate wastewater through bipolar membrane electrodialysis. To address this problem, a cleaning method for PAS-fouled anion exchange membrane was developed. The cleaning efficiency of PAS-fouled membrane was evaluated by analysis of membrane resistance, transference number and X-ray photo-electronic spectroscopy (XPS). The cleaning performances with three different cleaning solutions (sodium hydroxide, sodium chloride, and hydrochloric acid) and ultrasonic enhanced cleaning indicated that hydrochloric acid had the best cleaning performance, and the ultrasound could enhance the cleaning effect of all the three solutions. The membrane resistance and transference number of the fouled anion exchange membrane could almost be restored to the same level as uncontaminated membrane when using ultrasound-enhanced cleaning process with 2.0 mol/L hydrochloric acid as cleaning solution.

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    Application of wheat bran flocculation technology on mixed culture fish pond of silver carp and carps
    LIU Chao,ZHAI Guowei,LÜ Yajun,FENG Peng,WANG Bin
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2019, 9 (5): 559-565.   doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2019.03.270
    Abstract52)   HTML3)    PDF(pc) (936KB)(21)      

    An experiment on the carbon source from supplementary wheat bran was carried out in the mixed ponds of silver carp and carps, in order to study the effect of wheat bran on the bioflocculation generation in the ponds under conventional culture and its influence on the fish growth and the aquaculture water quality. The results showed that supplementary wheat bran could significantly promote biological flocculation, with the fresh fish yield increased by 16.32% compared with the control fish ponds. The weight gain rate, specific growth rate and growth potential of the experimental fish ponds were significantly higher than those of the control ponds. The growth performance of silver carp was higher than that of carp, and the feed coefficient of carp was lower than that of the control fish ponds. The effect of bioflocculation on the growth of silver carp was higher than that of carp. Compared with the control fish ponds, the water transparency of the fish ponds with supplementary wheat bran decreased, the total suspended solid concentration increased, the concentration of nitrite nitrogen, amino nitrogen and total nitrogen significantly decreased, and the water quality of the aquatic water was improved.

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    Transport characteristics of PM2.5 of heavy pollution weather in Tianjin in summer
    MENG Lihong,HAO Tianyi,LI Peiyan,WU Bingui,WANG Xuelian
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2020, 10 (1): 39-46.   doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20190058
    Abstract52)   HTML9)    PDF(pc) (9842KB)(45)      

    Based on the data of environmental monitoring, conventional meteorological observation and NCEP reanalysis, aerosol lidar and HYSPLIT model were used to analyze one PM2.5 heavy pollution process in Tianjin in summer on Aug.1 and Aug.2, 2018. The results showed that the weak pressure of surface field, temperature-inversion layer in the boundary and east warm-humid airflow accelerated the accumulation of pollutants. Aerosol lidar analysis showed that the pollution process had obvious horizontal and vertical distribution characteristics. The increasing of PM2.5 concentration in urban area was not only related to the horizontal transport, but also closely related to the accumulation of pollutants caused by temperature-inversion layer in the boundary. The backward trajectory tracking by HYSPLIT model showed that in the early stage of cumulative climb of PM2.5, air masses mainly came from south, and the air masses had obvious settlement at 200, 500 and 1 000 m altitudes during the climbing phase of PM2.5 concentration. The eastward warm airflow brought the clearer air as well as a lot of moisture, which resulted the increasing of relative humidity during the later stage pollution. The static weather situation caused the accumulation of pollutants on the early stage, while and the transportation of pollutants between the urban areas of Tianjin as well as the increasing of relative humidity caused by the eastward warm humid airflow aggravated pollution on the later stage.

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    Characterizing the effect of Fe(Ⅱ) dosage on anammox treatment process using excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy and parallel factor analysis
    WANG Rong , YAO Liang, SHEN Huiyan , YU Li , LI Weihua
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2019, 9 (6): 658-665.   doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2019.09.120
    Abstract49)   HTML11)    PDF(pc) (4101KB)(35)      

    The effect of ferrous ions dosage on the anaerobic ammonia was investigated. The excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy combined with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) method was used to decompose the EEM fluorescence components in the effluent samples. The relationship between the added Fe(Ⅱ) and the effluent quality of the reactor was explored. The results showed that with the increase of ferrous ions concentration from 1.84 mg/L to 5.00 mg/L, the removal rates of N H 4 + -N and N O 2 - -N increased gradually, indicating that increasing the influent ferrous ions concentration could increase the utilization rate of substrate by microorganisms. The proportion of anammox bacteria increased significantly with the increase of ferrous ions dosage; protein-like substances and fulvic acid-like substances were the main fluorophores in the effluent of anammox reactor. With the increase of ferrous ions dosage, the protein-like fluorescence of the effluents increased significantly, which implicated that the dosage of ferrous ions would promote the growth of anammox bacteria under certain conditions. Therefore, EEM fluorescence spectroscopy could reflect the effect of ferrous ions on the performance of anaerobic ammonia oxidation, which then implicate the actual operation of the reactor.

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    Research on adsorption efficiency and mechanism of clay and coal fly ash for rural domestic waste leachate
    WU Haixia,WU Xiaohui,MENG Bangbang,YUE Bo,HE Hailing,GAO Hong
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2019, 9 (5): 587-596.   doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2019.05.140
    Abstract48)   HTML6)    PDF(pc) (3440KB)(29)      

    The effects of contact time, adsorbent dosage and initial pH on adsorption efficiency and its adsorption mechanism of clay and coal fly ash were investigated in batch experiments. Considering the removal effect, operation cost and maneuverability, the contact time of 180 min, adsorbent dosage of 50 g/L, initial leachate pH of natural value(7.5-8.0)were chosen as the actual operation condition. The results showed that under this condition, the removal rates of clay and coal fly ash for normal pollutants of rural domestic waste leachate (CODCr, NH3-N, TN, TP) were 25.58% and 33.01%, 14.87% and 18.18%, 41.63% and 22.07%, 62.25% and 60.46%, respectively. The removal rates of clay and coal fly ash for heavy metals (Cr, As, Cd, Ni, Pb) were 13.04% and 10.53%, 43.34% and 31.52%, 60.24% and 84.30%, 47.52% and 65.73%, 61.77% and 68.65%, respectively. The isothermal dates of clay and coal fly ash for various pollutants in landfill leachate could be well described by the Freundlich adsorption model, and the chemisorption was the dominant mechanism.

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    Research on energy optimization development countermeasures of Jincheng City
    SHI Dandan , LUO Hong , LÜ Lianhong , YANG Zhanhong , PEI Yingying
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2019, 9 (6): 761-768.   doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2019.06.120
    Abstract48)   HTML4)    PDF(pc) (1572KB)(23)      

    Energy consumption is closely related to the quality of the atmospheric environmental quality. Energy development countermeasures in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and surrounding areas are of great significance for air pollution control. In order to improve the air quality of Jincheng City, the current situation and problems of energy development in the city were analyzed by unary linear regression analysis and comparative analysis. The results showed that the energy consumption structure of Jincheng City was dominated by coal, and the coal consumption in 2017 was 11.76 million tons, accounting for 76.2% of the primary energy consumption. However, the total coal consumption continued to decline. In 2017, the coal consumption decreased by 2.58 million tons compared with 2015, with its proportion in the primary energy consumption reduced by 14.7 percentage points. By 2020, the proportion of coal consumption would continue to decline, but it will still dominate, and the natural gas consumption would rise sharply. The total energy consumption of Jincheng City continued to increase but the growth rate declined; the energy consumption intensity was strong, but the energy efficiency level continued to increase. From the perspective of regional distribution, Zezhou County had the highest energy consumption and energy intensity, as well as a great potential for energy conservation. The proportion of energy consumption in chemical raw materials and chemical manufacturing, electricity-heat production and supply was 67%, and their energy intensities were much higher than that of the average values of the same industries in China. There was a large contribution to air pollutants coming from energy-related key sources such as civil combustion, electricity power, industrial boilers, etc. It was suggested that Jincheng City should strengthen energy conservation and pollutant emission reduction in key industries and essential areas by focusing on boiler transformation, energy engineering measures such as clean heating, coal reduction, energy structure measures such as development of renewable energy, energy and environmental economic policies, enterprise energy efficiency management, and other energy management measures to achieve sustainable development of local energy and environment.

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    Pollution characteristics and health risk assessment of heavy metals in farmland soil downstream of a copper mine slag dumps
    CHENG Rui
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2020, 10 (2): 280-287.   doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20190095
    Abstract48)   HTML11)    PDF(pc) (4331KB)(40)      

    In order to explore the pollution status and evaluate the pollution risk of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Cd, As and Sb) influenced by copper deposits, the concentration of heavy metals of three farmland soil plots (block 1 #,2 # and 3 #) downstream of a copper mineslag dump in Jiangxi Province were analyzed. The results showed that the average contents of the five heavy metals in the three plots were higher than the background values in Jiangxi Province (normal soil), and the average contents of Cu, Cd in block 1 # and Cu, Sb, As in block 3 # exceeded the paddy field standard limit (with pH<6.5) of Soil Environmental Quality-Risk Control Standards for Soil Contamination of Agricultural Land (Trial) (GB 15618-2018). The analysis of Nemero Composite Index showed that the P of blocks 1 #, 2 # and 3 # was 11.30, 1.25 and 2.95 respectively, which were at the level of heavy, light and medium pollution, respectively. The Muller's Accumulated Index analysis showed that block 1 # and 3 # were differently polluted by Cu, Cd, Sb, Pb, As, and block 2 # was polluted by Cu, Pb, Sb, As at different levels. The health risk analysis showed that there was no non-carcinogenic risk for adults and children in the three farmlands, and the carcinogenic risk (CR) for children exceeded the maximum acceptable limit (1.0×10 -4) stipulated by US EPA. The CR of blocks 1 # and 3 # for adults also exceeded the maximum acceptable limit, with unacceptable carcinogenic risk. The CR of the three carcinogenic heavy metals was in the order of As>Cd>Pb, and the contribution of three exposure routes to carcinogenic risk was oral>skin>breathing.

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    Research on the development status and problems of environmental protection industry parks in China
    LI Chongyang , JIANG Lei , WANG Zhiyao
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2019, 9 (6): 769-774.   doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2019.06.210
    Abstract47)   HTML2)    PDF(pc) (962KB)(29)      

    At present, China is confronted with more complex and severe environmental problems, and the government attaches great importance to the development of environmental protection industry. The environmental protection industry and industrial clusters in China are facing not only great opportunities for development, but also a series of problems. The development background of environmental protection industrial parks in China was introduced, the relevant national policy documents of environmental protection industry were sorted out, the current situation and regional distribution of major environmental protection industrial parks in China was expounded, and their regional differences were analyzed. At last, the main difficulties in the development of environmental protection industrial parks were summarized from the aspects of policy, technology, capital and regional development, and the corresponding suggestions were put forward to promote the development of environmental protection industrial parks more healthily and rapidly in China.

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    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2019, 9 (6): 0-3.  
    Abstract47)      PDF(pc) (8139KB)(86)      
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    Study on UV-vis spectra of dissolved organic matter from sediment interstitial water in Moguhu Lake
    YAN Zongcheng , GAO Hongjie , GUO Xujing , WANG Siyu , YU Huibin , XIN Xin
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2019, 9 (6): 685-691.   doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2019.05.160
    Abstract46)   HTML3)    PDF(pc) (2772KB)(46)      

    The principal component analysis and cluster analysis were used to analyze the UV-vis spectra of sediment interstitial water in Moguhu Lake, to identify the spectral components and the main control factors, and to study the composition, humification degree and spatial variation of dissolved organic matter (DOM). Seven sampling points were selected from Moguhu Lake to extract DOM samples of sediment interstitial water. The research showed that DOM contained lignin and quinine, carboxylic acid groups, polyalkyl humus and so on. There were significant differences in the two regions of the periphery and deep lake area. Through the analysis of their UV-vis spectra, six spectral indices (Sr, SUVA254, E2/E3, E2/E4, E253/E203, A2/A1) with good correlation could be deduced to characterize the molecular weight and humification level of DOM, and the results indicated that the molecular weight and humification of DOM in the peripheral area were all higher than those in the deep lake area, and showed a decreasing trend with increasing water level in the area. The results of variable cluster analysis showed that the index (E253/E203, SUVA254, A2/A1), which was positively correlated with humification level, was more representative when characterizing DOM humification. Sample cluster analysis divided the sampling points into two categories, which were consistent with the principal component analysis results. Studies showed that the degree of spatial variability could be judged to some extent by the degree of DOM humification.

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    Characteristics and source analysis of water-soluble inorganic ions in PM2.5 in Yanqing District, Beijing
    ZHANG Juan,WANG Wei,ZHAO Ying
    Journal of Environmental Engineering Technology    2020, 10 (2): 173-182.   doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20190085
    Abstract46)   HTML10)    PDF(pc) (2315KB)(58)      

    The atmospheric PM2.5 samples were collected from June 2017 to May 2018 in Yanqing District, Beijing. The pollution characteristics of nine water-soluble inorganic ions in PM2.5 were analyzed, and the sources were analyzed by SPSS software. The results showed that the average concentration of total water-soluble inorganic ions in PM2.5 in Yanqing District was 28.0 μg∕m 3, of which S O 4 2 - , N O 3 - and N H 4 + were the main water-soluble inorganic ions, accounting for 82.1%. Influenced by weather, the concentration of N O 3 - and S O 4 2 - was high in autumn and low in winter, while the concentration of N H 4 + was high in autumn and low in summer. Influenced by meteorological conditions and construction activities in winter, the concentration of Ca 2+, Mg 2+, Na + was the highest in winter. According to the charge balance analysis, the anions and cations in PM2.5 basically reached equilibrium in spring, with weak acidity in summer and autumn, and weak alkalinity in winter. The mean values of SOR and NOR in PM2.5 were 0.53 and 0.27, respectively, and there were obvious secondary transformation processes in the atmosphere. The ratio of N O 3 - ∕S O 4 2 - was 1.66, which indicated that vehicle exhaust contributed a lot to water-soluble inorganic ions in PM2.5. According to the correlation analysis between N H 4 + and S O 4 2 - , N O 3 - , Cl in PM2.5 in Yanqing District, N O 3 - and S O 4 2 - existed in the form of (NH4)2SO4, NH4HSO4, NH4NO3 and HNO3. Pearson correlation analysis using SPSS software showed that the correlations between any two of N O 3 - , S O 4 2 - , N H 4 + in PM2.5 in Yanqing District were strong, indicating that the secondary reaction was significant; the correlations between any two of Ca 2+, Mg 2+, Na + were strong, indicating that the sources of pollution may be the same; Cl - was strongly correlated with K +, and Cl -mainly existed in the form of KCl in the atmosphere. Using factor analysis module to analyze the main components, it was found that the main pollution sources in Yanqing District were biomass combustion, dust pollution and motor vehicle exhaust emissions.

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