In order to survey the present heavy metals pollution of the main surface water in Xiongan New Area-Baiyangdian, 15 points were set up to study the distribution characteristics of heavy metals concentrations in surface water and sediment of Baiyangdian Lake, and the pollution degree of surface water and sediment of the lake was assessed by the methods of comprehensive pollution index, index of geo-accumulation and potential ecological risk index. The changes of heavy metal concentration and potential ecological risk index from 2004 to 2016 were also analyzed. The results showed that the concentrations of heavy metals Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb in water were 2.38, 6.56, 5.57, 67.17, 4.13, 0.034, 0.39 μg/L, respectively. Among them, Cu and Zn at the Shaochedian site, and Zn at Zhainan, Luowangdian, Quantou, Zaolinzhuang, Guangdianzhangzhuang, Guolikou and Anxin Bridge sites exceeded Class Ⅰ of Surface Water Environmental Quality Standard (GB 3838-2002). Other sites were better than Class Ⅰ water quality standards, Cr, As, Cd and Pb were better than Class Ⅰ water quality standards in all points. The concentrations of heavy metals Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb in sediment were 48.53, 25.51, 28.83, 91.19, 161.51, 3.21, 45.26 mg/kg, respectively. Cr and Ni were better than Class Ⅰ of Soil Environmental Quality Standard (GB 15618-1995) in all points, while Cu, Zn and Pb were better than Class Ⅱ standards in all points. As and Cd were both significantly higher than Class Ⅲ standards in all points. The comprehensive pollution index showed that there was no heavy metals pollution in Baiyangdian surface water, while the accumulation index and potential ecological risk index indicated that Cd pollution in Baiyangdian sediments was extremely serious and As was also seriously polluted, which should be paid enough attention to. The concentrations of As, Cd and Pb significantly increased from 2003 to 2014, and Cd contributed more than 83% to the historical heavy metal potential ecological risk index, especially, being the main pollution factor. Therefore, the control of Cd pollution into the lake and sediment should be strengthened.