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20 January 2020, Volume 10 Issue 1 Previous Issue   
Wetland loss identification based on remote sensing technology and its application in Binhai New Area, Tianjin City
LÜ Jinxia,JIANG Weiguo,WANG Wenjie,LI Zhuo,CHEN Zheng,CHEN Kun
2020, 10 (1):  1-8.  doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20190092
Abstract ( 10 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (31453KB) ( 2 )   Save

The acceleration of the urbanization process and a series of unreasonable development and utilization of wetland resources have caused serious damage of the wetland, and the monitoring of the temporal and spatial changes of wetland resources plays important role in the regional development and sustainable development of wetland. Based on multi-period land use data and long-term sequence Landsat image data, the loss status of wetland types were analyzed by using Markov transfer matrix and GIS spatial analysis method. The trend analysis method was used to analyze the wetland vegetation, water body and soil moisture elements loss in long-term sequences and different stages. The remote sensing identification method of wetland loss was constructed, and the wetland loss patterns were summarized combined with wetland type and wetland element loss, with a case study in Tianjin Binhai New Area. The results showed that the damage of wetland types in Binhai New Area was mainly divided into three periods (1980s-2000, 2000-2009, 2009-2015). From 1980s to 2015, the wetland experienced the process from damage to recovery, and the wetland area increased by 41.40 km 2. Wetland elements showed a degradation trend from 1984 to 2015. The areas of significant degradation of NDVI, NDWI and SMMI were 364.66, 221.28 and 253.94 km 2, respectively. In three different periods, different dominant factors affected the damaged area of wetland. In Binhai New Area, the wetland loss was mainly caused by vegetation, water area and vegetation during the three periods.

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Methodology study on the wetland restorability evaluation and its application in Binhai New Area, Tianjin City
LÜ Jinxia,WANG Wenjie,JIANG Weiguo,CHEN Zheng,LI Zhuo,DENG Yawen
2020, 10 (1):  9-16.  doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20190091
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The wetland recoverability assessment could obtain the difficulty of wetland restoration, and provide important theoretical support for the site selection and implementation of wetland restoration. Based on the wetland types and ecological element data, the assessment method for the recoverability of damaged wetland was constructed by using wetland element damaged area and wetland type loss area, which could evaluate the recoverability of damaged wetland quantitatively. Based on the topographical conditions, urbanization effects and ecological importance indicators in the region, and using the source-sink theory and the minimum cumulative resistance model, a method to evaluate the regional recoverability of wetland was constructed, which were used to quantitatively evaluate the wetland natural recoverability at the regional scale. The evaluation methods of wetland natural recoverability were proposed at damaged wetland and regional scale. Furthermore, a case study was conducted in Binhai New Area, Tianjin city. The results showed that: (1) In damaged wetland scale, the area of stable wet area in Binhai New Area was 640.30 km 2, the largest proportion of the recovery area, followed by the most difficult recovery area, with an area of 381.85 km 2, accounting for 22.15%. The most difficult recovery area and the more difficult recovery area were accounted for 42.36% of the entire recovery area. (2) In regional scale, under the medium and high safety level, the area of the relatively easy recovery area of Binhai New Area was1 695.65 km 2, accounting for 82.02%. The area of low recovery area were 67.55 km 2 and 129.05 km 2, accounting for 3.27% and 6.24%, respectively.

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Wetland degradation risk assessment method and its application: a case study of Tianjin City
LI Zhuo,JIANG Weiguo,WANG Wenjie,LÜ Jinxia,CHEN Zheng
2020, 10 (1):  17-24.  doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20190100
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Due to the acceleration of the climate change and human activities, the wetlands, which are important ecosystem on the earth, are continuously appropriated, damaged and even disappearing. It is thus very urgent and necessary to establish a reliable evaluation model for the wetlands degradation. Based on the theory of regional ecological risks, a multi-index evaluation system including 22 indexes was established from the two aspects of stress degree and degradation degree, and the risks of wetland degradation in Tianjin from 1990 to 2015 was assessed. The results showed that the risk of wetland degradation in Tianjin City showed a trend of decreasing first and then increasing due to the fluctuation change of stress degree and the increase of degradation degree of the wetland itself. The value of degradation risk in 2015 increased by 10.08% compared to 1990. And the risk value of the areas with originally low risk of wetland degradation presented a phenomenon of rapid increase of risk. Therefore, it is urgent to formulate more strict policies and build up a better management system to strengthen the protection and restoration of wetlands in Tianjin City.

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Spatial optimization and configuration scheme of wetland park based on landscape ecology: a case study of Liuli River Wetland Park in Beijing
LI Binglun,WANG Wenjie,HU Yuanman,LIU Miao,BU Rencang,SHI Sixue,XIONG Zaiping
2020, 10 (1):  25-31.  doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20190122
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Whether urban wetland park can play its ecological function mainly depends on its spatial distribution pattern. According to the optimization concept of pattern-process-function integrity, the spatial pattern of Liuli River Wetland Park was optimized by optimizing landscape structure, regulating the hydrological circulation process and hydrological cycle process, and optimizing the spatial configuration of Liuli River Wetland Park, so as to achieve the purpose of improving the function of the study area. The results showed that the study area could be divided into 2 primary functional zones and 9 secondary functional zones. Through regulation of hydrologic circulation process and hydrologic cycle process, the water areas increased by 0.68 km 2. Based on pattern optimization and hydrologic regulation, the space optimization scheme including patch configuration and corridor configuration was proposed. The number of patches might increase by 924, the wetland area increased by 146.51% and the functions of water purification, species conservation, ornamental and educational functions were greatly improved in the study area after optimal configuration.

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Reconstruction of ecological elements in urban wetland park:a case study of Liuli River Wetland Park in Beijing
LI Binglun,WANG Wenjie,HU Yuanman,LIU Miao,BU Rencang,SHI Sixue,XIONG Zaiping
2020, 10 (1):  32-38.  doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20190164
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Wetland vegetation is one of the important indicators for evaluating the spatial structure, function and process of wetlands. In the light of the problems of few vegetation types, poor water quality, low landscape diversity and poor ornamental effect in Liuli River Wetland Park in Beijing, aiming at the realization of water purification, species conservation, ornamental and science popularization of the wetland, the main river channel was optimization and new wetland construction were studied. Based on current landuse status and restoration objectives of the study area, three functional areas of wetland restoration, i.e. water purification functional area, species conservation functional area and ornamental and science popularization functional area, as well as their overall layout were proposed. For different functional areas, the reconstruction schemes of wetland ecological elements were proposed from the aspects of base restoration and vegetation allocation. In the scheme, an area of 1.13 km 2 of wetland was optimized and constructed, and 28 vegetation communities were allocated. This scheme could improve the ornamental functions of the study area while taking into account the purification of water quality and species conservation function.

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Transport characteristics of PM2.5 of heavy pollution weather in Tianjin in summer
MENG Lihong,HAO Tianyi,LI Peiyan,WU Bingui,WANG Xuelian
2020, 10 (1):  39-46.  doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20190058
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Based on the data of environmental monitoring, conventional meteorological observation and NCEP reanalysis, aerosol lidar and HYSPLIT model were used to analyze one PM2.5 heavy pollution process in Tianjin in summer on Aug.1 and Aug.2, 2018. The results showed that the weak pressure of surface field, temperature-inversion layer in the boundary and east warm-humid airflow accelerated the accumulation of pollutants. Aerosol lidar analysis showed that the pollution process had obvious horizontal and vertical distribution characteristics. The increasing of PM2.5 concentration in urban area was not only related to the horizontal transport, but also closely related to the accumulation of pollutants caused by temperature-inversion layer in the boundary. The backward trajectory tracking by HYSPLIT model showed that in the early stage of cumulative climb of PM2.5, air masses mainly came from south, and the air masses had obvious settlement at 200, 500 and 1 000 m altitudes during the climbing phase of PM2.5 concentration. The eastward warm airflow brought the clearer air as well as a lot of moisture, which resulted the increasing of relative humidity during the later stage pollution. The static weather situation caused the accumulation of pollutants on the early stage, while and the transportation of pollutants between the urban areas of Tianjin as well as the increasing of relative humidity caused by the eastward warm humid airflow aggravated pollution on the later stage.

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The suppression effect and safety evaluation of poly-γ-glutamic acid, a novel biological dust suppressant
YUAN Dandan,CHEN Mian,LIU Junxiang,GAO Liang,LIU Fei,ZHANG Xiaoyuan,HAO Ronghua,CHEN Lei,ZHANG Yanyan
2020, 10 (1):  47-55.  doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20190084
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The dust suppression effect of poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) was studied and its safety was evaluated. The dust suppression effects of γ-PGA at different molecular weight, concentration and coordinated-effects with various polysaccharides were investigated respectively by filter paper loading dust and periodic simulation of wind erosion. The effect of γ-PGA on dust removal was tested by smog simulating dust. The effects of γ-PGA on seed germination of Poa pratensis L. and corrosion of carbon steel were investigated separately. The results showed that the dust suppression rate of high molecular weight γ-PGA was higher and only decreased by 10.6% within 12 days. The dust suppression rate of 0.100%γ-PGA was higher than other groups at 1st, 3rd, 7nd and 12th day. When γ-PGA was mixed with hyaluronic acid or xanthan gum in a ratio of 2:1, the dust suppression rates were higher than γ-PGA was used alone. After spraying 0.100% γ-PGA, the sedimentation rate of particles was significantly faster than that of natural sedimentation rate, especially for particles with small particle size. γ-PGA could promote growth of seed. The corrosion rate of carbon steel treated with high concentration γ-PGA was the lowest.

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Research progress on combined biological purification technologies for black and smelly water bodies
WANG Haishan,ZOU Ping,FU Xianping,DAI Ben,ZHU Fangfang,WANG Zitong
2020, 10 (1):  56-62.  doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20190038
Abstract ( 12 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (890KB) ( 5 )   Save

At present, black and smelly water bodies appear in many cities and towns in China, so it is urgent to strengthen the control of black and smelly water bodies in cities and towns. The definition, formation process, characteristics of black and smelly water bodies and the present situation of treatment of them in China were introduced, the common methods of treatment were summarized, and the advantages and importance of biotechnology were put forward. The technical idea of combining biological technologies to treat black and smelly water bodies was expounded, which was to purify the water through several links of artificial aeration, adding bacteria agent, adding growth-promoting agent, adding fillers and planting aquatic plants. The purification principle of different links, main technical measures and research progress of combinatorial biotechnology were reviewed. The comprehensive application and effect of combinatorial biotechnology were summarized, and the future research direction of combinatorial biotechnology was prospected. It aims to provide a diversified view and reasonable control framework for the purification of black and smelly water bodies by combination technology.

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Dredging technology and its effect on the treatment of polluted water
LIU Lixiang,HAN Yongwei,LIU Hui,MENG Xiaojie,GAO Xinting,HOU Chunfei,XIONG Xiangyan,KE Yan
2020, 10 (1):  63-71.  doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20190045
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Sludge dredging is one of the effective ways to control internal pollution sources of polluted water. In order to deeply understand the application of dredging technology and the treatment effects on water pollution, the application of sludge dredging technology, its treatment effects and the effluences on the ecosystem of polluted water were summarized by literature review. It was found that the environmental sludge dredging efficiency was the higher than the grab sludge dredging efficiency, and there were few reports on the efficiency of other sludge dredging methods. Dredging technology was widely used, but after the application of the dredging engineering, the influence of sludge dredging on polluted water quality had both obvious and unapparent sides. The time effect characteristics of dredging effectwas described, The effect of sludge dredging in polluted water could be divided into long-term, short-term and instantaneous effects, and at present, the instantaneous effect of dredging effect was common. The factors that affected the dredging effect included mechanical disturbance and dredging depth. The disturbance caused obvious release of suspended pollutants in the sediment. At present, the dredging depth range was 0-90 cm. Each dredging project had a specific optimal dredging depth with the best effect of removing nutrients. The impact of dredging on biome could be divided into short-term and long-term, with short-term impacts being reflected in biodiversity and biomass, and long-term impacts in the reconstruction of biome. Finally, the future priority areas of sludge dredging research were proposed, including the development of specialized sludge dredging equipment, precise sludge dredging technology and the impact of sludge dredging on endogenous nutrients.

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Present situation and research progress of ultrasonic algae control technology
CHEN Helin,LI Yun,CHU Zhaosheng,YE Bibi,LI Guohong
2020, 10 (1):  72-78.  doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20190032
Abstract ( 9 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (897KB) ( 10 )   Save

Ultrasonic algae control technology has great development potential and broad application prospects with the advantages of simple equipment, economical efficiency, without secondary pollution and simple management. The basic principles of ultrasonic algae control technology, the factors affecting the efficiency of algae control by ultrasound, the impact of ultrasound on water ecological environment and the algae removal efficiency of ultrasound technology combined with other technologies were reviewed. The results showed that in the case of ultrasonic algae control, the higher the intensity, the greater the energy consumption and the more the cost. Moreover, the excessive power could inhibit the growth of aquatic organisms. Considering the removal efficiency, safety and economy of algae control, the low-power ultrasonic technology was more suitable for cyanobacterial bloom control. At the same time, the combination of ultrasound and other algae control technologies could improve the efficiency of algae removal, which would be a development direction of ultrasonic control algae technology in the future.

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Removal of hexavalent chromium from electroplating wastewater by ammoniated distilled grain-based adsorbent
DANG Wei,WANG Lili,ZHANG Tingting
2020, 10 (1):  79-84.  doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20190083
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To remove hexavalent chromium (Cr(Ⅵ)) from electroplating wastewater, the ammoniated distilled grain-based adsorbent was prepared using the fermentation residue as the raw material by means of ammonia modification. The composition and structure of the adsorbent was analyzed and characterized by FTIR, EDS, BET and SEM, and its effect on Cr(Ⅵ) adsorption was studied under different pH and adsorbent dosage. The results showed that the amounts of amino groups were introduced into the surface of the ammoniated distilled grain-based adsorbent, and the contents of nitrogen element reached 4.40%. At equilibrium pH is 2.7, the saturated adsorption capacity of Cr(Ⅵ) reached maximum value 150.45 mg/g, and the average adsorption rate reached 1 791.90 mg/(g·h). In addition, the regeneration performance of the adsorbent was evaluated. After five regeneration cycles, the adsorption performance of the adsorbent to Cr(Ⅵ) reached 98.44 mg/g, and the adsorption performance loss rate was 19.60%.

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Impacts of vermicompost on degradation of municipal sludge
GONG Zheng,WANG Hui,CHEN Xuemin,TIAN Weiping,FU Xiaoyong
2020, 10 (1):  85-90.  doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20190036
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In order to accelerate the stabilization process of municipal sludge, the effect of vermicompost on the sludge degradation process was studied. Sludge and vermicompost were mixed with mass ration of 2:1 as the treatment group (WF), and the sludge without vermicompost was used as the control group (W). The comparison tests were conducted at (20±1)℃ for a total of 50 days. The results showed that the concentration of organic matter (OM) in the treatment group with vermicompost (WF) was 4.2% lower, the electrical conductivity (EC) and the content of N H 4 + -N were elevated by 79.0% and 110.0%, respectively, and the content of N O 3 - -N was declined by 83.5%. The varied range of pH value in the treatment group was lower than that in the control group during the whole experimental process. The results showed that vermicompost could promote sludge ammoniation and stabilize the pH value. Moreover, the inoculation of vermicompost could reach the purposes of a higher degree of organic matter decomposition and a faster rate of mineralization, which contributed to the rapid stabilization of municipal sludge. Vermicompost can be used as an additive to accelerate municipal sludge degradation.

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A study on the regeneration of lanthanum modified attapulgite
FANG Kai,SHANG Weichun,YAO Junqi,ZHONG Tianyi,FENG Qian,GE Ran
2020, 10 (1):  91-96.  doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20190078
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The effects of regeneration pH, time , temperature and regeneration times on the regeneration effect of Lanthanum modified attapulgite (La-ATP) were studied by experiments. The results showed that the alkaline condition was beneficial to La-ATP regeneration. The ideal regeneration rate and loss rate could be achieved at pH 8. The regeneration rate was higher than 90% after 30 min regeneration. Slight increasing of regeneration rate was found when regeneration time was more than 30 minutes. The increase of regeneration temperature enriched the regeneration rate and loss rate of La-ATP. The regeneration rate was higher and the loss rate was lower at 30 ℃. The properties of attapulgite were seriously damaged after 6 times of regeneration. Considering comprehensively, the optimum regeneration conditions were as follows: pH=8, regeneration temperature 30 ℃, regeneration time 30 min, regeneration times 6.

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Anoxic biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in aged deep soil pretreated with chemical oxidation
MA Junsheng,GOU Yaling,WANG Xingrun,YANG Sucai,CHENG Yanjun,SONG Yun
2020, 10 (1):  97-104.  doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20190067
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Integrated chemical-biological treatment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contaminated soil has received much attention. However, previous studies mainly focused on the remediation of soils contaminated with PAHs using oxidation treatment coupled with aerobic biodegradation, rather than anoxic biodegradation. In order to study the feasibility of applying combined chemical oxidation and anoxic biodegradation method to remediate PAHs contaminated soil, the anoxic culture of the soil oxidized by hydrogen peroxide was carried out. It was found that the removal efficiencies of 16 PAHs ranged from 33.3% to 95.9% after hydrogen peroxide oxidation, but the application of hydrogen peroxide resulted in a significant decrease of the number of bacteria in the soil, and the gene copy number of total bacteria in soil decreased by 3.5 orders of magnitude. However, bacterial numbers could be significantly recovered after 180 days of anoxic incubation in the treatment added with nutrients, and higher levels of bacteria were observed in treatments with nutrients and electron acceptor (sulfate) in inoculated soil. The use of nutrients or electron receptor (sulfate) alone could not enhance the biodegradation of PAHs obviously, but the application of both nutrients and electron acceptor could result in obviously biodegradation of PAHs. Moreover, higher biodegradation efficiency was observed for 3-rings and partial 4-rings PAHs (fluoranthene and pyrene) in inoculated soil than that of non-inoculated soil in treatment where both nutrients and electron acceptor were added. Overall, a further PAHs removal of about 15% was observed after anoxic biological treatment compared with chemical oxidation treatment alone.

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Effects of fully biodegradable mulch film on the yield of sugarbeet and soil physiochemical properties in Southern Xinjiang, China
WANG Bin,WAN Yanfang,WANG Jinxin,SUN Jiusheng,HUAI Guolong,CUI Lei,SUN Chen
2020, 10 (1):  105-111.  doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20190048
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To study the effect of fully biodegradable mulch film on sugarbeet yield and soil physiochemical properties in southern Xinjiang agricultural production, poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) polyester-type fully biodegradable mulch film was used as the treatments and ordinary polyethylene (PE) mulch film as the control to analyze the effect of degradable mulch film on experimental zone soil temperature, moisture content, nutrients, sugarbeet production and so on. The results showed that with the growth process of sugarbeet, the degradation rate of biodegradable mulch film was smaller in June-August (4.5%-12.8%) and significantly increased in October (45.8%). There was no significant difference in the emergence rate, growth period, biomass (including underground, aboveground and whole plant), sugar and yield between the biodegradable mulch film and the control. During the growing period of sugarbeet (June-October), the change trend of average soil temperature and moisture content of degradation mulch film and the control under 5, 15 and 25 cm was basically consistent. There was no significant difference in the average soil temperature between the two treatments at 5, 15 and 25 cm, while the average soil moisture content was all lower than that of the control, and the average soil moisture content at 15 cm was significantly lower than that of the control. During the growing period of sugarbeet, there were no significant differences of biodegradable mulch film and the control in soil available nitrogen, phosphorus and kalium, soil total salt and soil pH between 0-20 and 20-40 cm soil layers.

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Effect of different extractants on removal of heavy metals in peanut meal
GE Yichen,YANG Yang,LI Hongliang,ZENG Hongyuan,ZENG Qingru
2020, 10 (1):  112-117.  doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20190053
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The effects of potassium citrate, potassium tartrate and hydrochloric acid on heavy metals removal from peanut meals were compared, and the variation of nutrient elements and crude protein concentrations before and after extraction were studied. The results showed that the removal rate of Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd in peanut meals gradually increased with the increase of extraction time and concentrations of extractants. The remaining Cd content in the meal under the extraction via 0.50% and 1.00% hydrochloric acid were only 0.42 mg/kg and 0.34 mg/kg, respectively. After three successive extractions with the three kinds of extractants, the removal rate of Zn and Cu was greatly improved. The residual Cd concentrations in the meal with the third extraction of 30 mmol/L potassium tartrate and the second extraction of 0.25% hydrochloric acid were 0.36 and 0.21 mg/kg, respectively, both meeting with the requirements of Hygienical standard for feeds (GB 13078-2017). It was noticeable that potassium citrate and potassium tartrate could remove heavy metals with less losing of nutrient elements. Low-concentration hydrochloric acid could extract a large amount of nutrient elements and they all had little effect on crude protein. According to the comprehensive consideration, the low-concentration hydrochloric acid was more appropriate to peanut meal heavy metal extraction.

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Application status and prospect of combined treatment technology for oily sludge
LIANG Hongbao,ZHANG Quanjuan,CHEN Hongtao,CHEN Bo,SONG Yang
2020, 10 (1):  118-125.  doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20190065
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The oily sludge has a wide range of sources and complex compositions, and the corresponding treatment technology and equipment also show a diversified trend. It is necessary to use combined treatment technologies of oily sludge to meet the technical requirements of resource utilization and harmless treatment. Through the site survey and literature research, the principles, application scope, characteristics and development of the commonly used oily sludge treatment methods at home and abroad were summarized. The application status of several new oily sludge combined treatment technologies in China’s petrochemical enterprises was introduced, including sieving fluidization-tempering-mechanical dehydration technology, electrochemical bio-coupling advanced treatment technology, sludge centrifugal dewatering-superheated steam injection treatment technology, hot-washing coupling treatment technology and microbial-plant combined treatment technology. Whether the oil content of the residue after treatment by the existing treatment methods could meet the standard requirements of Technical Specifications for Pollution Control of Used Mineral Oil Recovery, Recycle and Reuse (HJ 607-2011) and the resource utilization direction of the residue were summarized. In view of the problems and treatment effects of various oil sludge treatment technologies in application, there are few treatment methods at present to completely treat all oily sludge in a satisfactory manner, and further research is needed.

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Practice exploration of mountain-sea-river-city mode of ecological civilization construction in Sanya City
LIU Dan,TIAN Cuicui,XU Tingting,ZHAO Jiancheng,CHEN Long
2020, 10 (1):  126-132.  doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20190034
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Sanya City is the only international tropical coastal tourism city in China, it is also an important node city of China’s 21st Century Maritime Silk Road, its ecological civilization construction caused extensive concern. According to the regional characteristics of Sanya City, the main problems in the ecological civilization construction are identified from the level of system, environment, and economy. It reveals that Sanya City had problems such as the ecological civilization system was still not perfect, the task of green economy development was arduous, the quality of local ecological environment was declining, and the level of tourism development was not high yet. On the basis of clarifying the regional functional orientation, the overall layout of the ecological civilization construction of the “mountain-sea-river-city (MSRC) model is put forward based on the concept of ecological priority and green development, and combining the unique geographical location and superior ecology resources of Sanya City. On this basis major tasks were proposed from six aspects, including institutional innovation, ecological remediation, green development, environmental improvement, concept propaganda, and characteristic construction, which comprehensively promoted the ecological civilization construction, and obtained an actual effect in Sanya City. It may lay a solid foundation for Sanya City’s goal of becoming a world-class coastal tourism city.

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Spatial and temporal dynamics and driving factor analysis of ecological footprint of Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration based on improved parameters
WEN Yi,GAO Jun,YAO Yang,LIN Zhanglin
2020, 10 (1):  133-141.  doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20190061
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Take the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration (YRDUA) as the research area, the parameters of ecological footprint model was modified based on “national hectare”. Then the time series and spatial distribution of per capita ecological footprint of 26 cities in the study area from 2006 to 2016 were discussed. Finally, three typical cities (Shanghai, Suzhou and Ma’anshan) were selected to discuss the main driving factors of ecological footprint change in terms of environment and economy. The results indicated that the per capita ecological footprint of 26 cities in YRDUA from 2006 to 2016 showed an upward trend in time series, the spatial distribution pattern had little change, and the distribution trend was generally high in the surrounding area and low in the middle. The per capita GDP, urbanization rate and population were the main driving factors of the growth of ecological footprint.

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Evaluation methods of environmental carrying capacity and their operational applications: progress and prospect
LI Juanhua,ZHANG Huiyuan,HAO Haiguang,ZHANG Zhe
2020, 10 (1):  142-149.  doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20190055
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It is an important task for China to carry out the environmental carrying capacity evaluation (ECCE) and establish the monitoring and early warning mechanism of resources and environment carrying capacity in ecological civilization construction and ecological and environmental management. The current evaluation methods of ECCE at home and abroad were summarized, including index system evaluation method, system model method, environmental capacity method and supply and demand balance method, and the connotation, representation forms, advantages and disadvantages of each method were compared. The shortcomings of the evaluation method of environmental carrying capacity in the operational application were analyzed, such as the insufficient comprehensiveness of the evaluation method, the weak prediction effect of the evaluation result, the insufficient consideration of the regional openness and scale effect, and the insufficient application. Focusing on the operational application of ECCE method, it was suggested that further research should be carried out in four aspects, including comprehensive evaluation of regional ecological environment system, construction of differentiated index system, standardization of evaluation methods, and realization of simulation and prediction function of evaluation results.

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System simulation and policy optimization of carbon emission reduction in Shandong Province
LI Yanhong
2020, 10 (1):  150-159.  doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20190063
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In order to investigate the influence of emission reduction policy on energy consumption and carbon emission, a system simulation model of energy consumption carbon emission in Shandong Province was constructed from the aspects of economy, energy, population and environment. On the basis of validating the model, the one-dimensional scenario and multi-dimensional comprehensive scenario simulations were carried out. The results showed that under the set scenario parameters, the adjustment of industrial structure, science and technology investment and energy structure could effectively promote carbon emission reduction, but the effects of emission reduction were different. If science and technology investment was represented by cleaner technology investment, it was more conducive to the realization of carbon emission reduction goals. The single factor adjustment had certain limitations in the emission reduction effect, while the multi-factor comprehensive simulation was close to achieve low carbon economic development targets in Shandong Province of the 13 th five year plan, with the second and third industry investment propertion in fixed assets investment of 49.43% and 46.94% respectively, the technology investment ratio of 2.70%, and the the energy consumption ratio of 74.87%:15.27%:9.86%.

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Study on the technical innovation capacity of China’s atmospheric environmental protection industry from patent perspective
LI Linzi,FU Zeqiang,FENG Qiang,FANG Lin
2020, 10 (1):  160-166.  doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.20190082
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With patent analysis method, the technical innovation capacity of China’s atmospheric environmental protection industry was studied from perspectives of output trend, field distribution, spatial distribution and applicants, according to patent data of air pollution abatement from 2000 to 2018. The study found: the technical innovation capacity of China’s atmospheric environmental protection industry had been steadily improved, especially the implementation of planning and policies such as the Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Atmospheric Pollution had effectively promoted the technical innovation of atmospheric environmental protection industry; in recent years, the technical output of bag dust removal, indoor air purification, organic waste gas treatment and other industries had increased significantly; the technical innovation capacity of China’s atmospheric environmental protection industry presented a distribution pattern of “east high-west low”, and the technical innovation output was mainly concentrated in the Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta and other regions; the main technological innovation bodies in China’s atmospheric environmental protection industry were enterprises, whose technological innovation capability was obviously less than that of giant enterprises in the United States, Japan and Germany. To solve the problems found in the study, the countermeasures and suggestions to promote the improvement of technical innovation capacity of China’s atmospheric environmental protection industry were put forward, including the formation of policies driving for the technical innovation of atmospheric environmental protection, the support for private enterprises engaged in atmospheric environmental protection, and the promotion of in-depth collaboration among industry, academia and research institutes.

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