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20 July 2019, Volume 9 Issue 4 Previous Issue   
Analysis of atmospheric circulation situation and allocation characteristics of heavily polluted weather in Langfang City
ZHANG Weizhong,YAN Lixia,GUO Liping,QIN Yunmiao,SHAN Kun,WEN Jing
2019, 9 (4):  335-341.  doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2019.01.241
Abstract ( 92 )   HTML ( 12 )   PDF (1899KB) ( 22 )   Save

The characteristics of surface weather pattern and high-altitude circulation pattern of heavily polluted weather at 08:00 were studied by using the data from 2013 to 2015 in Langfang City, and the configuration of high and low-altitude atmospheric circulation analyzed. The results showed that there were 8 types of surface weather circulation patterns, among which the bottom of high pressure accounted for the most, and the rear of high pressure, deformed high pressure and the front of high pressure appeared more. Whenever slight or severe haze occurred, the most surface weather circulation pattern was the bottom of high pressure, the backflow situation appeared the most in mild haze, while the rear of the high pressure field was the most in moderate haze. There were 7 types of 700 hPa circulation, with the northwest airflow before the ridge taking the largest proportion, followed by straight west airflow and southwest airflow before the trough. The slight haze and severe haze most controlled by the northwest airflow before the ridge, while the mild haze and moderate haze were dominated by the straight west wind. There were 9 types of high and low altitude atmospheric circulation configuration, with three main configuration situations being 700 hPa high-pressure ridge control with ground high-pressure field, 700 hPa straight west wind with ground high-pressure field, and 700 hPa high-air trough with ground high-pressure field. Whenever slight or severe haze occurred, the main configuration type was high-pressure ridge in 700 hPa with high-pressure field on surface. When mild haze and moderate haze occurred, the main configuration type was straight western airflow in 700 hPa with high-pressure field on surface. During 3-5 days of continuous haze process, high pressure bottom accounted for the most on the ground, and the proportion of the high altitude situation of the straight westerly circulation, ridge, high-altitude groove was 36.0%, 35.2% and 28.9%, respectively. The most typical circulation situation of high and low air configuration was controlled by high-pressure ridge at high altitude, and for the ground circulation the most typical situation was the bottom of high pressure.

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VOCs emission inventory and characteristics of farmland ecosystem in a county of Kaifeng City
HU Jingyi,LIU Duo,DENG Zhixin,WANG Hao,YAN Haojie,ZOU Pengfei,SU Yanxia
2019, 9 (4):  342-346.  doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2019.03.180
Abstract ( 80 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (1263KB) ( 50 )   Save

By taking a bottom-up approach, the pesticide use and agricultural machinery were investigated in a county of Kaifeng City, and combining with Kaifeng Statistical Yearbook 2017, the VOCs emissions of farmland ecosystems in villages and towns were calculated using the emission factor method. Based on these data, the VOCs emission inventory of farmland ecosystem in the county was established. The results showed that the total VOCs emissions from farmland ecosystem in 2017 were 7 255.81 t. The largest VOCs emissions were from the use of pesticides, which reached 7 114.20 t, followed by agricultural machinery diesel VOCs emissions of 141.61 t. According to the VOCs emission amount and the geographical coordinate information of each township, the pollutant emission concentrations were visualized using ArcGIS, and the spatial distribution charts of VOCs emission intensity in the county were established. It was found that the VOCs emission intensity of each township was quite different, and the emission intensity of most townships was at a high level. Based on these results, some preliminary suggestions on emission reduction were made, such as building a scientific and rational agricultural production system, increasing VOCs supervision, improving pesticide utilization rate and reducing agricultural diesel oil consumption.

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Evaluation of rural domestic wastewater treatment technologies in Lake Erhai Basin
LI Liang,CAO Xinran,PANG Yan,XU Qiujin,HU Xiaozhen,GUAN Heqing
2019, 9 (4):  349-354.  doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2019.01.060
Abstract ( 92 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF (867KB) ( 72 )   Save

The evaluation of water pollution treatment technologies is of great significance to understand the current situation and level of technologies. According to the technical characteristics of rural domestic wastewater treatment in Lake Erhai Basin, a fully quantified technical evaluation index system was established, including 8 indicators in economic benefit, environmental benefit and technical level. Based on expert consultation and analytic hierarchy process, the calculation method of technical benefit evaluation was put forward, and five rural domestic wastewater treatment technologies in Lake Erhai Basin were evaluated, including a whole set of wastewater treatment technology from perimeter of the lake bay, the anaerobic pond and surface flow wetland technology, the FMBR technology for mixed wastewater of living and farming, the integrated technology of living and farming wastewater treatment, the integrated technology of anaerobic pond and soil treatment tank. The results showed that the comprehensive benefit (A) score of the five technologies was 6.11-8.19. The integrated technology of anaerobic pond and soil treatment tank, and the integrated technology of living and farming wastewater treatment were excellent, and the other three technologies were good. As the technologies are applied according to the results of the technology evaluation, the appropriate technologies should be selected according to the results of the itemized evaluation of technical and economic benefits and environmental benefits.

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Evaluation of agricultural non-point source pollution control technologies based on analytic hierarchy process
LI Yanling,ZHU Changxiong,LI Hongna,GENG Bing
2019, 9 (4):  355-361.  doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2018.12.201
Abstract ( 40 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (818KB) ( 14 )   Save

According to the technical characteristics of agricultural non-point source pollution prevention and control in China, an index system of 14 evaluation indexes including economic benefit, environmental benefit and technical applicability was established. Combining the index system with the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), an agricultural non-point source pollution prevention and control technology evaluation system based on AHP was established. By combining the weight of indicators with the score of experts in relevant fields, the technology was comprehensively evaluated to determine the level of technology. The technology evaluation method was applied to evaluate 6 agricultural non-point source pollution prevention and control technologies in 3 categories. It revealed: the evaluation levels of nutrient loss control technology and ecological interception technology for bioactive carbon were neutralization and good respectively; the pollution control technology of microbial fermentation bed of corn straw and UASB+SBR treatment technology were rated as good and medium respectively; the treatment technology of anaerobic-soil purification bed and anaerobic-falling water oxygenation-contact oxidation-artificial wetland were rated as medium. The technical evaluation method is applicable to the comparison and screening of different single technologies in the prevention and control of different types of agricultural non-point source pollution.

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Establishment and application of drinking water insurance technology system from water source to tap
LIN Mingli,QIN Jianming,ZHANG Quanbin
2019, 9 (4):  362-367.  doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2019.01.190
Abstract ( 61 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (3929KB) ( 8 )   Save

In response to problems of water source contamination, water quality security risk, and the difficult removal of poisonous and pernicious substances such as algae, odor, ammonia nitrogen and arsenic, the National Major Science and Technology Program for Water Pollution Control and Treatment in the 11 th and 12 th five-year plan periods developed significant technologies covering water regulation, water quality purification, water distribution system and its monitoring and evaluation, advance warning and emergency treatment, and drinking water security control. On this basis, the drinking water insurance multi-barrier process with ozone-GAC and membrane separation as core technologies has been established, and domestic-produced critical equipment and materials realized. Moreover, the drinking water insurance technology system from water source to tap has been established and applied in Taihu Lake Basin and South-to-North Water Diversion Project benefited regions in large scales, leading to an accumulative water supply scale of over 10 million m 3/d and a benefited population of over 80 million, and providing technical support for improvement of the qualified rate of urban water supply quality from 58.2% in 2009 to 96.0% presently. In the meanwhile, the achievements have provided systematic technical support for national urban-rural water supply planning, urban water supply quality supervision and the construction of water supply emergency rescue bases.

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An empirical study on green investment and economic growth based on investment multipliers
HE Lei,HUANG Xiang,SHEN Peng,LIU Xiaoyu,CAO Bao
2019, 9 (4):  368-374.  doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2019.06.170
Abstract ( 46 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (825KB) ( 11 )   Save

As one of the important tools of macro-economic policy evaluation, the investment multiplier has been widely applied in both theory and empirical evidence. However traditional investment multiplier does not reflect the environmental cost of economic development, which is not conducive to guiding the development of green economy. The concept and calculation model of green investment multiplier were proposed and Taihu Lake Basin was taken as an example to test the Keynesian four-sector investment multiplier (KS), expanded investment multiplier (KZ) and green investment multiplier (KE) from 2006 to 2014. By comparing and analyzing their influencing parameters of the three types of investment multiplier, it revealed that KS showed a light dynamic change from 2006 to 2014,with no obvious growth or downward trend, and the value of KS was slightly greater than 1 which meant that it had a certain pulling effect on the economy, but not very large. The value of multipliers KZ was greater than 2 and that of KE mostly greater than 3, and especially the multi-year average value of KE was 17.3 percentage points higher than that of KS, indicating that the green investment had a significant pulling effect on the economy. KE showed an increasing trend from 2006 to 2010, however, from year 2010, this trend had changed, with a downward trend of KE. This indicated that the pulling effect of traditional investment on the economy had become weak after 2010. Green investment multiplier can organically link investment, economic growth and environmental costs, and help guide green development. Therefore, it is necessary to increase green investment support to lead a new round of economic growth.

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Influence of substrate concentration on the nitrogen removal and relative genes of denitrifying MBBR for the treatment of reverse osmosis concentrate
LI Li,YAN Guokai,WANG Haiyan,LING Yu,ZHAO Yuanzhe,WANG Huan
2019, 9 (4):  375-383.  doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2019.04.260
Abstract ( 68 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (4591KB) ( 31 )   Save

Denitrifying MBBR was used for the treatment of reverse osmosis concentrate with high TN and N O x - -N (N O 3 - -N and N O 2 - -N) concentrations, which was generated from Dalton Filtration Reverse Osmosis (DFRO) unit in the high-quality water reclamation process of wastewater treatment plant effluent. The variation of denitrifying MBBR efficiency and the copy number of nitrogen removal genes were studied extensively under four different substrate concentrations. The results show that when the influent N O 3 - -N and TN increased within the range of (8.70±6.34)-(24.23±8.69) and (28.43±5.69)-(44.10±7.37) mg/L, respectively, the N O 3 - -N and TN removal ratios remained stable with the increase of removal rates, but the N O 3 - -N and TN removal rates increased, while the N O 2 - -N removal ratios and rates decreased. The N O 3 - -N and TN removal ratios and rates decreased when the influent N O 2 - -N concentration increased within the range of (10.94±8.51)-(20.94±5.78) mg/L, while the N O 2 - -N removal ratios and rates increased. The biofilm on denitrifying MBBR carriers mainly consisted of cocci, bacillus and filamentous bacteria. The copy numbers of nitrogen removal genes in carrier biofilm and suspended sludge increased with the increase of influent N O 3 - -N and TN concentration, and the copy numbers of nirK, nirS and Anammox genes also increased with the increase of influent N O 2 - -N concentration.

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Treatment of organic pollutants in caprolactam wastewater by SBR and electrocatalytic oxidation combined process
DU Song
2019, 9 (4):  384-388.  doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2019.03.260
Abstract ( 29 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (1822KB) ( 15 )   Save

The removal effect of organic compounds from caprolactam wastewater by Fenton process, SBR and electrocatalytic oxidation was studied, and the pilot of SBR plus electrocatalytic oxidation processes was set up to study the removal efficiency of organic compounds from caprolactam wastewater, the effect stability and the economy. The results showed that the CODCr removal rate by oxidant in Fenton process was 90.0% with the oxidant dosage of 3.0%, but the cost of oxidant was high. The removal rate of CODCr by SBR was 56.1%, and the single process was difficult to meet the processing requirements. The removal rate of CODCr by electrocatalytic oxidation was 43.5% at appropriate energy consumption, the single process was difficult to meet the processing requirements and the unit power consumption was high. The removal rate of CODCr by SBR plus electrocatalytic oxidation combined process was above 90.0% and the effluent CODCr was reduced to 200-300 mg/L, with the treatment cost of 5.15 yuan/m 3, indicating both technically and economically feasible.

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Purification performance and mechanism of phenanthrene in water by beads-in-string structural laccase-carrying electrospun fibrous membranes
LIU Shuang,WANG Siyu,DAI Yunrong
2019, 9 (4):  389-396.  doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2019.03.280
Abstract ( 24 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (2222KB) ( 7 )   Save

The beads-in-string structural laccase-carrying electrospun fibrous membranes (LCEFMs) were prepared by emulsion electrospinning technology, and the laccase could be successfully encapsulated in the beads of electrospun fibers in situ. Compared with the linear LCEFMs, the laccase load of the beads-in-string structural LCEFMs was doubled, and the retained laccase activity reached 78.9%. Furthermore, the storage and operational stability of the beads-in-string structural LCEFMs were significantly increased after glutaraldehyde cross-linking. The optimized LCEFMs were used for the purification of typical polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water. The result showed that compared with free laccase, the degradation and removal efficiencies of phenanthrene by the beads-in-string structural LCEFMs were obviously enhanced. For phenanthrene solution with concentration from 0.01 to 2.00 mg/L, the adsorption and degradation efficiency of the beads-in-string structural LCEFMs could reach over 80% and 72%, respectively. Furthermore, the tolerance of LCEFMs to the changes in environmental factors such as pH, temperature was also dramatically improved, which was attributed to the concentrated immobilization of laccase in the bead and the protective effect of the fibrous shell on laccase. In addition, the toxicity of the luminescent bacteria was detected for evaluating the toxicity of phenanthrene solution. The results showed that the toxicity of phenanthrene solution was reduced after treated by free laccase or the beads-in-string structural LCEFMs. By contrast, the beads-in-string structural LCEFMs could reduce more toxicity of phenanthrene solution with different concentrations than free laccase.

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Research on pollution control of dyeing wastewater in hairwork industry by ultrafiltration membrane method
SUN Yaping,ZHANG Yingying,YUN Qiangdong
2019, 9 (4):  397-403.  doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2019.02.020
Abstract ( 28 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (2423KB) ( 14 )   Save

In order to study the feasibility of ultrafiltration membrane technology in pollution control of hairwork industry, the dyeing wastewater with characteristics of high chroma, high chemical oxygen demand and high ammonia nitrogen was researched. The microfiltration membrane pretreatment-ultrafiltration treatment experiments were carried out in water recovery range of 50%-90%, and the trends of ultrafiltration membrane performance and pollutant interception effects analyzed. The results showed that at relatively low water recovery rate of 50%, the ultrafiltration membrane treatment intercepted 75.0% of chroma, 45.9% of UV254, 43.7% of CODCr, 10.8% of electrical conductivity and 12.1% of ammonia nitrogen, respectively. When water recovery rate increased from 50% to 90%, the interception rate of the ultrafiltration membrane to each main pollution index showed a decreasing trend. At water recovery rate of 50%, the ultrafiltration membrane revealed a good interception effect on particles larger than 15 μm, but its effect on the removal of large particles decreased significantly with the increase of water recovery rate. It was concluded that 64% was the optimal water recovery rate to balance the operating effectiveness and contaminant removal capacity of ultrafiltration membrane treatment.

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Study on the spatial-temporal change of vegetation coverage between the belts of Beijing's main urban area based on dynamic remote sensing data
MA Moheng,XUE Fei,DANG Anrong,LI Xuecao,HU Tengyun
2019, 9 (4):  404-413.  doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2019.05.141
Abstract ( 53 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF (7704KB) ( 5 )   Save

Beijing has been undergoing rapid urbanization since 1980s. A tremendous change in vegetation coverage can be observed in main city area (the 6th-Ring Road). Based on the Landsat remote sensing database collected during the periods of August or September in 1984, 1995, 2004 and 2014 respectively, a comprehensive study on radiometric calibration, atmospheric correction, and splicing combined with cutting in the 6th-Ring Road of Beijing was carried out. By using NDVI and other methods, the change of vegetation coverage over the three decades of each ring was obtained. The results indicated that the percentage of internal vegetation coverage decreased from 76.80% (1 742.44 km 2) to 48.73% (1 105.61 km 2) in three decades from 1984. The vegetation coverage in the 2nd-Ring road and to the 3rd-Ring road increased by 8.43 and 4.33 percentage point respectively in 2014 and 1984, however the vegetation coverage outside of the 3rd-Ring decreased growing, which was 12.23, 27.62, 32.97 percentage point respectively. Research conclusion include that it is necessary to propose differentiation ideas on urban ecosystem construction, e.g., vegetation coverage between different zones through spatial planning means. The inner 3rd-Ring Road demands urban fine governance aiming to encourage the development of green space rather than building areas. As the urban construction between the third to the 5th-Ring Road tends to stabilize, more opportunities appear for the expansion of the medium-sized urban ecological space. Moreover, the afforestation of million acres and the increase of urban farmland could be accomplished for 5th-Ring and 6th-Ring Road. Through these planning approaches, it is expected to build a variety of urban green spaces system, and furthermore, comprehensively enhance the urban ecosystem services of Beijing’s main urban area.

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Spatial and temporal variation characteristics of water pollution in Hailaer River, Inner Mongolia
PANG Yan,XIANG Song,YANG Tianxue,YUE Caiying,LIU Yangyang
2019, 9 (4):  414-420.  doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2019.01.110
Abstract ( 22 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (1881KB) ( 6 )   Save

Taking the Hailaer River, the upstream tributary of the Erguna River between China and Russia, as the research object, the main water quality indexes of 6 monitoring sites from 2005 to 2015 were analyzed to study the spatial and temporal variation characteristics of water pollution. The results indicated that CODMn, CODCr and TN were the main pollution indexes of the mainstream of the Hailaer River, and the ammonia nitrogen basically met the Class Ⅲ requirement of Surface Water Environmental Quality Standards (GB 3838-2002). The overall water quality of the main and tributaries of the Hailaer River showed an improvement trend from 2005 to 2015 and a significant improvement occurred from 2005 to 2009. CODMn showed a decreasing trend in the four monitoring sites of Hailaer mainstream and CODCr showed a decreasing trend in the Taohai and Cuogang sites of Hailaer downstream, while CODCr of the four monitoring sites increased in 2010 and 2013. CODMn and CODCr of the mainstream of the Hailaer River changed significantly within a year, and the pollution was significantly aggravated from March to May every year. In addition, the mainstream was more seriously polluted than the tributaries, the downstream of the mainstream was more seriously polluted than the upstream, and the downstream Taohai monitoring site was the most polluted. The water quality in the Hailaer River was influenced by local meteorology, hydrology and human activities. The special environmental protection programme initiated in 2005 played beneficial effects on the water quality, while the abnormal climate in the years of 2010 and 2013 showed adverse influences on the mainstream water quality.

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A method for determining the landward boundary of coastal zone based on the influence of ocean on land
JIA Jiao,HE Ping,XU Jie,REN Ying
2019, 9 (4):  421-430.  doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2019.04.130
Abstract ( 18 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (3764KB) ( 5 )   Save

The coastal zone is not only a region with highly concentrated population and economy, but also a focus area of supervision of ecological and environmental fields. However, the criterion for delimitation of the coastal zone has not yet reached consensus over the world. Aiming at establishing a scientific and unified spatial standard boundary, and with idea of determining the landward boundary of coastal zone based on the ocean effect, the natural processes were selected including coastal erosion, rise of sea level, storm surge, extreme wind of typhoon, soil salinization, salinization and half-salinization of groundwater, and salty tide intrusion, in order to summarize the impact scope of these natural processes on the land. It was proposed that the landward boundary of coastal zone could be determined by the maximum impact width of the various processes. Take Tianjin coastal zone as an example, the land boundary of Tianjin coastal zone was delineated. It is recommended that the technical guidelines should be formulated to guide related provinces to delimit the landward boundary of coastal zone, and to coordinate a map of the landward boundary of coastal zone by the nation, thereby providing a unified spatial basis for the investigation, research, planning and supervision in coastal zone.

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Groundwater quality evaluation and causes analysis based on statistical methods: taking Qiqihar City as an example
HONG Hui,LI Juan,WANG Yang,XI Beidou,XU Yunfeng,FENG Yujuan
2019, 9 (4):  431-439.  doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2019.04.160
Abstract ( 26 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (1372KB) ( 8 )   Save

As an important drinking water source in China, the causes analysis of groundwater pollution is of great significance for ensuring the safety of drinking water quality. Taking Qiqihar City as an example, statistical methods were used to analyze groundwater quality and pollution causes through four steps: data acquisition, evaluation index screening, water quality evaluation and cause analysis. The following conclusions were drawn: the groundwater quality in some parts of Qiqihar City was very poor, mainly due to excessive concentration of iron and manganese (Class Ⅲ water quality of the Quality Standard of Underground Water (GB/T 14848-2017)), and the phenomenon of excessive iron and manganese of the submersible water were more serious than that of the confined water. The high value area of iron concentration was mainly distributed in the central city and Tailai County, with the maximum exceeding the standard by 54.67 times. The high value area of manganese concentration was mainly distributed in the central city, Tailai County and Keshan County, with the maximum exceeding the standard by 15.40 times. The concentration of iron and manganese exceeding the standard was mainly related to the original geological conditions, and iron and manganese in the confined water was also related to the high mining intensity of groundwater in the area. The excessive concentration of iron in the groundwater was mainly correlated to pH, organic matter and ammonia nitrogen concentration, while the concentration of manganese was mainly correlated to pH of the groundwater and the dissolved ions concentration.

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Characteristic and evaluation of soil heavy metals pollution in the molybdenum mine area in Shaanxi
WANG Tao,SI Wantong,OUYANG Yan,LI Haidong,SHEN Weishou
2019, 9 (4):  440-446.  doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2019.01.080
Abstract ( 47 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (1743KB) ( 17 )   Save

Soil samples were collected from different sites in a molybdenum ore area in Shaanxi Province. Method of single factor pollution index, Nemerow index and potential ecological risk index were used for soil pollution evaluation and analysis. The results showed that the concentration of Zn was the highest among all heavy metals around the molybdenum ore district. The variation coefficients of Cu and Zn were 151.75% and 137.85% respectively, which belonged to higher variation. Pollution of Cu was the most serious in the soil, as the serious pollution rate reached 30.00%. Comprehensive potential ecological risk index of soil in the downstream river of mine (Q2) and the open-air ore area (Q4) were 323.84 and 382.24 respectively, which belonged to strong ecological risk, while the ecological risk degree in the surrounding farmland was slight. There existed difference among the potential ecological risk of soil heavy metals in the study area. Among all heavy metals, Cd and Hg had potential ecological risk with extremely high strength. Q2, Q3 and Q4 zones should be a key control area for soil heavy metal pollution prevention and control, and the harmful effects of Cu, Zn, Cd and As should be taken seriously. Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen the ecological environment control of mineral mining and production activities in the future to avoid and reduce the transfer of heavy metal pollution. Meantime, the potential ecological risk of soil heavy metal was controllable in the molybdenum ore area and the surrounding area, and the environmental risk monitoring in key areas should be further strengthened.

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Evaluation and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil of a steel plant
WANG Shuo,WEI Wenxia,LI Jiabin,WANG Zhan,WEI Yan
2019, 9 (4):  447-452.  doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2019.01.220
Abstract ( 44 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (905KB) ( 16 )   Save

After the relocation of a steel plant, 191 sampling holes were set in the main plant, using the layering (5 layers) sampling of 0-5 m soil, the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds (PAHs) in soil was analyzed. The stratification of the concentration of five PAHs pollutants including benzo (a) anthracene, benzo (b) fluoranthene, benzo (a) pyrene, dibenzo (a,h) anthracene and indene (1,2,3-cd) pyrene was studied, the Nemerow index (P) used to evaluate the degree of pollution, and the RBCA Version 2.5 model applied to assess cancer risk. The results showed that the average concentration of the five pollutants in the first, second and the third layers of the soil was higher than the screening value of the residential land in the Site Soil Environmental Risk Assessment Screening Value (DB11/T 811-2011). The average concentrations of other pollutants were lower than the screening values of residential land except for benzo (b) fluoranthene, benzo (a) pyrene and dibenzo (a,h) anthracene in the fourth layer, dibenzo (a,h) anthracene in the fifth layer. The Nemerow index (P) which reflected the pollution of soil PAHs gradually decreased from the topsoil, with P of benzo(a) anthracene falling from 69.75 to 1.99, P of benzo(b) fluoranthene decreasing from 84.75 to 3.12, P of benzo(a) pyrene dropping from 163.75 to 5.68, P of indene(1,2,3-cd) pyrene decreasing from 111.92 to 0.91, P of dibenzo(a,h) anthracene decreased from 393.20 to 3.21, which indicated that the degree of soil PAHs pollution was gradually decreasing. Among the five PAH compounds, benzo(a) pyrene as single pollutant contributed the highest to carcinogenic risk, being up to 56.11%, with the main exposure pathway of oral intake. This factory area must be treated and meet administrative standard before using as residential land.

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Pollution characteristics and risk of main metal pollutants in spent FCC catalysts in China
BIN Denghui,ZHU Xuemei,FU Haihui,HAO Yaqiong,HUANG Qifei,YANG Yanmei,YANG Ziliang
2019, 9 (4):  453-459.  doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2019.01.031
Abstract ( 70 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (2111KB) ( 7 )   Save

The spent fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts generated from 19 FCC units in different regions of China were collected, the heavy metal contents and leaching concentrations analyzed, and the main metal pollutants, pollution characteristics and potential risks discussed. The results were as follows: The main metal pollutants in spent FCC catalyst were nickel, vanadium, antimony, cobalt and zinc. The total concentration and leaching concentration of main metal pollutants varied great among different facilities. The leaching concentration of nickel, vanadium and antimony were comparatively higher, which were 0.004-3.171, 0.130-39.490, 0.042-8.099 mg/L respectively. The metals leaching concentrations from spent FCC catalyst could meet the criteria to enter the landfills as hazardous waste, whilst the pH in leaching solution was too low to enter hazardous waste landfill which need pretreatment. If a pile of spent FCC catalyst were not environmentally managed but stored on ground for a long period, the antimony would be released, thus endangering the groundwater and leading to certain potential health risk. The nickel had no similar effect.

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Research progresses on remediation of organic contaminated soil by biochar
WANG Daohan,SHAN Feng,TANG Jiaxi,HE Miaomiao,YING Bo,LIU Ya,LI Yang,WEI Zhongping
2019, 9 (4):  460-466.  doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2018.03.090
Abstract ( 70 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (900KB) ( 33 )   Save

Biochar as a soil amendment to improve soil environment and remediate contaminated soil has become one of the research hotspots in the field of agriculture and environmental protection. The types and characteristics of biochar, the effects of biochar application on soil physical properties (bulk density, porosity, water holding capacity, aggregate stability, etc.) and chemical properties (pH, nutrients, carbon cycle, etc.) were introduced. The adsorption mechanism of biochar for remediation of organic contaminated soil was expounded. The biochar remediation efficiency was analyzed from three aspects, including biochar physical and chemical properties, organic biological properties and adsorption environment. The effects of biochar on the environmental behavior of organic pollutants in soil were discussed, and the existing problems and future research directions were prospected.

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Chemical management regulation system in Canada and the reference to China
WANG Yizhe,MENG Rui,CHEN Lihong,YU Ruozhen
2019, 9 (4):  467-474.  doi: 10.12153/j.issn.1674-991X.2018.12.180
Abstract ( 38 )   HTML ( 14 )   PDF (964KB) ( 26 )   Save

Canada has set up a management system with complete legislation, rigorous methods and abundant means in chemical management. It has formed a three-level management system framework of federal, provincial and municipal levels, with rigorous management as the basic principle, life cycle management as its characteristic and multi-sectoral coordination as an important approach. The experience should be important reference for improving China’s chemical management. The legislation of chemicals management in Canada and the chemical management programs were reviewed, emphatically the management ideas of Canadian Environmental Protection Law, Hazardous Product Act, Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System, and New Substances Notification Regulations were interpreted. The progress of chemicals management in China were summarized, and the proposals were put forward to perfect China’s chemicals management as follows: improving the legislation of chemical environmental management, establishing the life cycle management system for chemicals, strengthening risk control measures and establishing the priority control list, and encouraging public participation.

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